Revolutions Of 1848

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Revolutions Of 1848

History

Metternich was ousted and the Hapsburg king, Franz Joseph, was granting a new constitution.  The liberals had very easily taken control. While liberals and radicals had taken power in Vienna, the rest of the country was a different matter. Peasants in the surrounding countryside were cool to the idea of a bunch of intellectuals, businessmen and bloodthirsty radicals now making the laws for all the people. The Magyars in Hungary soon were granted a large degree of autonomy from the Germans in Vienna.  From there the various South Slavs demanded greater autonomy as Serb, Croat, and Slovenian were granted many of their demands.

The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy (1830–48) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.

GermanStates

Reforms England

Austria

France

France

Revolutions of 1848

Nationalism, Romanticism, & Liberalism

Italy

The revolutions of 1848 ignited nationalist sentiment throughout the Italian peninsula. There were widespread uprisings in several Italian cities that year, mostly by the professional classes (such as doctors, lawyers, shopkeepers) as well as students. Lombardy-Venetia and Milan tried to rise up against Austrian rule. Although the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia sent troops to aid the revolt, it was crushed by the Austrians at Custoza in July 1848.

The revolutions of 1848–49 in the German states, the opening phase of which was also called the March Revolution (German: Märzrevolution), were initially part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many European countries. They were a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of the German Confederation, including the Austrian Empire. The revolutions, which stressed pan-Germanism, demonstrated popular discontent with the traditional, largely autocratic political structure of the thirty-nine independent states of the Confederation that inherited the German territory of the former Holy Roman Empire. They demonstrated the popular desire for the Zollverein movement.

The greatest success of the Reformers was the Reform Act 1832, which provided the rising middle classes with more political power in urban areas, while lessening the representation of areas of England undisturbed by the Industrial Revolution. Despite determined resistance from the House of Lords to the Bill, this Act gave more parliamentary power to the liberals, while reducing the political force of the working class, leaving them detached from the main body of middle class support on which they had relied. Having achieved the Reform Act of 1832, the Radical alliance was broken until the Liberal-Labour alliance of the Edwardian period.


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