[2015] Mallarie Steffel: Punic War's

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[2015] Mallarie Steffel: Punic War's

The Punic War's

264-241 BC

240-237 BC

218-201 BC

149-146 BC

This War was a conflict between Rome and Carthage. Most of the conflict took place on the island of Sicily. During the start of the war Carthage, controlled most of Sicily, except for the city-state of Syracuse. Rome controlled the entire Italian peninsula. This made the Romans concerned with the Carthaginians expanding their power across the island. Rome had a very strong army, but no navy. Carthage had one of the best navies. Rome improved their navy by capturing the Carthaginian warships and they made copies of their ships. The romans added a corvus to the front of their warship so 120 soldiers would rush across and take the enemy ship. In 260 BC, the Romans won a battle against the Carthaginian navy at Mylae. In 241 BC, Rome won the first Punic War.

Hamilcar moved to Iberia looking to expand Carthaginian territory, and to attack Rome one day. Before the left for Spain he made his son, Hannibal, take an oath to hate Rome as long as he lived. Hamilcar added territory to the Carthaginian empire and defeated the Iberians. One day Hamilcar got killed in battle so his son took over. Hannibal crossed the Ebro River, which violated the treaty with Rome. Rome than declared war on Carthage. His army, which included 37 war elephants, crossed the Pyrenees Mountains into Gaul, across the Rhone River, and then into the Alps. When they crossed the Alps that’s when they lost many men and almost half of the war elephants. Hannibal had victories during the battles at Trebia River and Lake Trasimene. During 216 BC, Hannibal’s army totally destroyed the two Roman legions in the Battle of Cannae. Rome took the war to Carthage with Scipio as their general. Scipio defeated Hannibal at Zama, and within a year, the Carthaginians sue for peace. Carthage lost Iberia to Rome, had to pay 10,000 talents for war damages, and its navy was limited to 10 ships.

Punic= "Purple"

Rome had a “victorious soldier problem” because soldiers had been always to war for a long period of time rich Romans bought their farms and used slaves to run them. Many flocked to the city of Rome looking for work. They wanted to send them back to war again, this time to Greece to fight against Phillip V of Macedonia. This battle took place in Greece, at the hills called Cynoscephalae. Rome defeated the Macedonians and soon became the masters of Greece. Then Carthage was attacked by the neighboring Numidian king, Masinissa, once an ally of Carthage in the Second Punic War. Since Carthage could not have an army they turned to Rome for help. The Romans sent Cato who fought in the Second Punic War and had been elected consul in the past. When he returned to Rome he brought a fig from Carthage. He told the Roman senate that this was the best fruit he has ever seen. The Third Punic War was a siege of the city of Carthage. Romans eventually took the city, killed the men of Carthage and enslaved the women and the children. The city was burnt to the ground and the Romans put salt into the fields so nothing could grow again.

The Mercenary War

The First Punic War

The Third Punic War

The Second Punic War

Carthage had to pay for damages after The First Punic War, so Carthage had very little left to pay the mercenaries. A disagreement over the payment led to the Mercenary War. Rome took control of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia while Carthage was preoccupied with the Mercenary War. This cut off their Carthage’s main trade routes.

Hamilcar Barca

Cato the Elder

Links: First Punic WarSecond Punic WarThird Punic War


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