Protestant, Catholic and English Reformations Presentation

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Protestant, Catholic and English Reformations Presentation

Protestant, Catholic and English Reformations Presentation

Before the Protestant Reformation there was considered to only be one Church, the Catholic Church.In 1515, Pope Leo X gave indulgence for those who funded the renovation of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome (Indulgence was an act of kindness or favor that in return one recieves a pardon from temporal punishments of sin. The only problem is that only the rich could afford this indulgence). Martin Luther was born in Germany to Catholic Parents in 1483. He became a monk and also a professor at the University of Wittenburg in Saxony. The 95 Theses were made in October 31, 1517. They were nailed to the Castle Church door in Wittenberg. It listed 95 arguments up for debate about Church practices, most importantly the sale of indulgences (Luther believed nothing could be done to save us on our accord).Some ideas of Luther were: Purgatory was a false doctorine, salvation was through faith alone, the Bilbe alone should be the final authority for truth, the only two Sacraments that were valid were Baptism and the Last Supper becasue they were the only two with Scriptural support, and the Eucharist wasn't a transformation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, rather it is just Christ who is present through it.Such ideas were published into books on printing presses by Luther to get his ideas circling faster.As ideas of Luthor began to circulate Europe in his newly published books and pamphlets, European leaders loyal to the Church and the pope and clergy called together a council to try Luther on the grounds of heresy. The pope ordered Luther to renounce his heretical statements, but Luther refused to comply saying to do so would go against his better conscience. Luther was forced into hiding by the help of Fredrick the wise.John Calvin was born in France to Catholic parentsin 1509. He was a French theologian and pastor. He began to doubt his Catholic faith as he began to read the writings of Aristotle, Luther, and Plato. He began to write down his ideas. He belived Purgatory was a lie created by the Catholic Church to instill fear on the Middle Ages. He also believed the Old Testament laws still applied to Christians. He also believed the Catholic Church was a destructive path and that a reformed Christianity would be the sureest path to heaven. In 1533 Calvin is forced to flee Paris, he was threatened by many rulers of Europe and Church leaders to be executed on account of his radical ideas.Henry XIII was born in the UK as a Catholic in 1492, and was the King of England. He asked for an annulment from his wife from the pope due to the fact that his wife couldn't produce an heir to the throne. The pope denied his request and Henry broke away from the Church.Henry XIII put it into English law that the King was the final authority, not the Pope. Edward VI took over Henry's throne after hisdeath in 1547. He was a liberal protest ant that kept extreme measures to keep Catholicism out of England. He banned Catholic practices and rituals and priests were forced to hide out in Catholic homes in secret compartments.

Protestant Reformation

The Church had two tatics: Reform the Church from within and stop the spread of Protestantism.The Council of Trent (1545-1563) purpose was that the Church held three meetings to discuss reform and define dogma (official teachings). Some areas were actually reformed: Called for the education of priests, improved dicipline and administration among the clergy, and indulgences got banned after the Council finished it's meetings.However, many teachings were not changed, and were instead reinforced; the ideas of the Protestants were rejected: You need faith and good works to achive salvation, 7 sacraments, not just 2, Bible is written in Latin, not the vermacular language, Pope is supreme leader, and man has free will (your fate is not Predestined).The Council heped revitalize the Catholic Church, as did the creation of new Catholic groups. These new religious orders were created to focus on performing charity and good works. This reaffirmed the Catholic tradition that one needed more than just faith to be saved.Lived among the poor and sick.Strengthened rural parishes.Encouraged pious and simple living.The Church also tried to prove that it was still a powerful institution, just like it had been in the Middle Ages. It continued to stress its orthodox teachings during the Counter-Reformation, and was usually very intolerant of different ways of thinking. The Church also tried to prove that it was still a pwerful institution, just like it had been in the Middle Ages. It continued to stress its orthodox teachings during the Counter-Reformation, and was usually very intolerant of different ways of thinking. The Church also took measures to reassert its authority in the following ways: The Jesuits, The Inquisition, and The Index of Prohibited Books.The Society of Jesus: The Jesuits was a religious group founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540 who promoted education, was famous for missionary work, strived to gain political influence (countered the populist Protestant Reformation by working top-down and counseling kings and princes), and a bit fanatical in their devotion.The index of Banned Books was created by the Pope in 1559, to prevent heresy and ensure books were morally correct. It banned both Protestant literature and texts by some intellectuals, like Erasmus.

Henry VIII was the Catholic king of England, the 'Defender of the Faith'.He and his queen, Catherine of Aragon had only one child, Princess Mary, who survived infancy. This worried Henry very much as he wanted a male heir to succeed him and secure the Tudor Dynasty. He wanted to have his marriage to Catherine annulled by the Pope so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, but the Pope would not grant the annulment. The Acts of Supremacy were passed by the Parliament, put in place Royal, rather than Papal, Supremacy. This made King Henry, and not the Pope, the head of the Church in England. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Crammer then annuled the King's marriage. For this, both the King and Cranmer were excommunicated by the pope. As the head of the church, the King was now in charge of nominating bishops and recieving ecclesiastical taxes. Those who defied him were charged with treason. Henry's former advisor, Sir Thomas More was excecuted in 1535 for denying Royal Supremacy. Henry adopted the Lutheran belief in only three sacraments, and ended many feast days and the use of religious iconography. This led to some iconoclasm, or the destruction of religious images and icons. Henry also seized monastic property, keeping it for the crown or dispersing it to the nobilty. This served several purposes, including;Enriching the crown.Destabilizing the remaining Catholic influence in England.Ensuring the loyalty of the nobility.In 1547, Henry VIII died, leaving the throne to his nine-year-old son, Edward VI. In 1552, Edward's close advisor, Archbishop Crammer issued The Book of Common Prayer:Changed the liturgy from Latin to English.Denied transubstantiation.Turn altars into communion tables.Edward VI was succeeded by his oldest half-sister, Mary I. Like her mother, Catherine of Aragon, and her husband, Philip II of Spain, Mary was Catholic. She restored the Catholic church in England and undid Protestant reforms. 300 Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics. Others were exiled. It is because of the violence that she has since been called, 'Bloody Mary'. These deaths were recorded in Foxe's Book of Martyrs, which would be a source of inspiration for Protestants who opposed Mary's rule.New Act of Supremacy: Made Elizabeth the Supreme Govenor of the Church of England. She repealed Mary's heresy laws.Act of Uniformity: Mandated attendance at Anglican church and the use if the Book of Common Prayer.The Puritans were Radical Protestants influenced by Calvinism. They ran their own congregations outside of the Anglican Church's authority. They were restricted under Elizabeth and persecuted under later rulers, so some would attempt to begin new lives colonizing America.

English Reformation

Catholic Reformation



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