Poster OSR

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Poster OSR

For this OSR, I read the book We Were Liars by Emily Jenkins. This story mostly takes place in Beechwood Island, a private island off the coast of Massachusetts, and partly in Europe. The Sinclairs, a wealthy family, stay on the island during the summer to have fun and enjoy being together. All of that changes when Grandma Tipper dies. Tipper was a balance to Grandad Harris, but since her death he had been using her belongings to create conflict between his three daughters, Bess, Penny, and Carrie, by telling them that the other ones had been bad-mouthing them. As the three of them compete to get their father’s approval, they go to the extent of using their children to influence Grandad Harris’ decision as to what their inheritance should be. The main character, Cady Sinclair, tries to remember how she put an end to all the family drama and retells the story of the Sinclairs. All she remembers is that something tragic happened on one night on Beechwood Island and that it was a consequence of her Grandad’s actions. The research topics I mainly focused on are schizophrenia, amnesia, home fire safety, and family wealth.

While Cady and her cousins, “The Liars”, are at Beechwood Island, their parents fight over who gets one of Grandma Tipper’s most prized possessions, the Clairmont house. After many weeks of the same conflict, the Liars conclude that they have had enough. They think that in order to put an end to this they have to put ablaze the Clairmont house. As they scheme about how they are going to do it, they don’t put a lot of thought into what would happen if anything went wrong. This article is about fire and what to do when you are trapped in fire. For example, the plan was for each person to be on one floor and set it on fire. One of the main key points of the article is to always have an escape route. As Cady puts out the fire, she starts on the wrong side of the room, the exit. Not knowing how to tell the others, she desperately jumps out of the window and this is how she is the only one able to save herself. Reading the article made me realize that Cady and her cousins should have made a back-up plan and they should have had a way to communicate with each other.

Throughout the story Cady is always talking about how when she is in mental pain she is also physically bleeding. It is because of schizophrenia. At some points in the book, it is confusing to the reader whether some details are in Cady’s head or real. Another part, which seems confusing is when Cady is in Europe with her dad. Cady constantly writes about how her veins open and bleed, and also how other body parts such as her brain and heart melt. Cady’s visions are a result of schizophrenia. The article states that people that have it have hallucinations. The whole time Cady is on Beechwood Island, she spends it with her three cousins even though they are already dead.

Selective amnesia is a major factor on how events unfold in the book. During the whole story, Cady tries to remember what happened the night of the fire but she can’t, because of her selective amnesia. The article states that causes of amnesia could be head injury and lack of oxygen. If the reader knows this, they can understand better why and how Cady got selective amnesia. One example of when amnesia affects Cady is when she goes back to school. She fails most classes and has to repeat junior year. She also loses many friends and does not play soccer or tennis anymore.

The Clairmont house is the primary property included in the inheritance, which the daughters of the Sinclair second generation fight for. As Grandpa Harris constantly gets the three daughters to quarrel over the house, the reader wonders how much it is really worth. The property shown here closely matches the description in the book. Some of the characteristics that are the same are: a three story victorian house, tennis court included, and it is located in Martha’s Vineyard, which is stated to be close to Beechwood.

[Article] Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that interferes with a person’s ability to think clearly, manage emotions, make decisions and relate to others. It is a complex, long-term medical illness, affecting about 1% of Americans. Although schizophrenia can occur at any age, the average age of onset tends to be in the late teens to the early 20s for men, and the late 20s to early 30s for women. It is uncommon for schizophrenia to be diagnosed in a person younger than 12 or older than 40. It is possible to live well with schizophrenia.Symptoms It can be difficult to diagnose schizophrenia in teens. This is because the first signs can include a change of friends, a drop in grades, sleep problems, and irritability—common and nonspecific adolescent behavior. Other factors include isolating oneself and withdrawing from others, an increase in unusual thoughts and suspicions, and a family history of psychosis. In young people who develop schizophrenia, this stage of the disorder is called the "prodromal" period. With any condition, it's essential to get a comprehensive medical evaluation in order to obtain the best diagnosis. For a diagnosis of schizophrenia, some of the following symptoms are present in the context of reduced functioning for a least 6 months:Hallucinations. These include a person hearing voices, seeing things, or smelling things others can’t perceive. The hallucination is very real to the person experiencing it, and it may be very confusing for a loved one to witness. The voices in the hallucination can be critical or threatening. Voices may involve people that are known or unknown to the person hearing them.Delusions. These are false beliefs that don’t change even when the person who holds them is presented with new ideas or facts. People who have delusions often also have problems concentrating, confused thinking, or the sense that their thoughts are blocked. Negative symptoms are ones that diminish a person’s abilities.Negative symptoms often include being emotionally flat or speaking in a dull, disconnected way. People with the negative symptoms may be unable to start or follow through with activities, show little interest in life, or sustain relationships. Negative symptoms are sometimes confused with clinical depression.Cognitive issues/disorganized thinking. People with the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia often struggle to remember things, organize their thoughts or complete tasks. Commonly, people with schizophrenia have anosognosia or “lack of insight.” This means the person is unaware that he has the illness, which can make treating or working with him much more challenging.Causes Research suggests that schizophrenia may have several possible causes: • Genetics. Schizophrenia isn’t caused by just one genetic variation, but a complex interplay of genetics and environmental influences. While schizophrenia occurs in 1% of the general population, having a history of family psychosis greatly increases the risk. Schizophrenia occurs at roughly 10% of people who have a first-degree relative with the disorder, such as a parent or sibling. The highest risk occurs when an identical twin is diagnosed with schizophrenia. The unaffected twin has a roughly 50% chance of developing the disorder. • Environment. Exposure to viruses or malnutrition before birth, particularly in the first and second trimesters has been shown to increase the risk of schizophrenia. Inflammation or autoimmune diseases can also lead to increased immune system • Brain chemistry. Problems with certain brain chemicals, including neurotransmitters called dopamine and glutamate, may contribute to schizophrenia. Neurotransmitters allow brain cells to communicate with each other. Networks of neurons are likely involved as well. • Substance use. Some studies have suggested that taking mind-altering drugs during teen years and young adulthood can increase the risk of schizophrenia. A growing body of evidence indicates that smoking marijuana increases the risk of psychotic incidents and the risk of ongoing psychotic experiences. The younger and more frequent the use, the greater the risk. Another study has found that smoking marijuana led to earlier onset of schizophrenia and often preceded the manifestation of the illness.Diagnosis Diagnosing schizophrenia is not easy. Sometimes using drugs, such as methamphetamines or LSD, can cause a person to have schizophrenia-like symptoms. The difficulty of diagnosing this illness is compounded by the fact that many people who are diagnosed do not believe they have it. Lack of awareness is a common symptom of people diagnosed with schizophrenia and greatly complicates treatment. While there is no single physical or lab test that can diagnosis schizophrenia, a health care provider who evaluates the symptoms and the course of a person's illness over six months can help ensure a correct diagnosis. The health care provider must rule out other factors such as brain tumors, possible medical conditions and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as bipolar disorder. To be diagnosed with schizophrenia, a person must have two or more of the following symptoms occurring persistently in the context of reduced functioning: • Delusions • Hallucinations • Disorganized speech • Disorganized or catatonic behavior • Negative symptomsTreatment There is no cure for schizophrenia, but it can be treated and managed in several ways. • Antipsychotic medications • Psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and assertive community treatment and supportive therapy • Self-management strategies and education

[Article] What is amnesia and how is it treated?Amnesia is when a person can no longer memorize or recall information that is stored in memory. It is very rare, despite being a popular theme for movies and books. Being a little forgetful is completely different to having amnesia. Amnesia refers to a large-scale loss of memories that should not have been forgotten. These may include important milestones in life, memorable events, key people in our lives, and vital facts we have been told or taught.Fast facts on amnesiaHere are some key points about amnesia. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. • Amnesia is an inability to lay down new memories, recall old memories, or both. • Other symptoms of amnesia can include confusion and uncoordinated movements. • Alcohol abuse can lead to a type of amnesia known as Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis. • Amnesia can be caused by many things including traumatic experiences and brain injury. • Amnesia usually resolves without treatment.What is amnesia? People with amnesia also find it hard to remember the past, memorize new information, and imagine the future. This is because we construct future scenarios on the basis of our recollections of past experiences. Our ability to recollect events and experiences involves a variety of complex brain processes. We still don't understand exactly what happens when we commit something to memory, or when we try to retrieve data stored in our brain.Causes Any disease or injury that affects the brain can interfere with memory. Memory function engages many different parts of the brain simultaneously. Damage to brain structures that form the limbic system, such as the hippocampus and thalamus, can lead to amnesia - the limbic system controls our emotions and memories.Medical amnesia Amnesia resulting from brain injury or damage. Possible causes are: • Stroke • Encephalitis, or brain inflammation, due to a bacterial or viral infection or an autoimmune reaction • Celiac disease may be linked to amnesia, confusion, and personality changes • Oxygen deprivation, resulting, for example, from a heart attack, respiratory distress, or carbon monoxide poisoning • Some medications, such as the sleeping drug, Ambien • Subarachnoid hemorrhage, or bleeding in the area between the skull and the brain • A brain tumor that affects a part of the brain involved in memory • Some seizure disorders • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)), or electroshock therapy, a psychiatric treatment where seizures are induced for therapeutic effect, may lead to temporary memory loss • Head injuries, which can lead to loss of memory that is usually temporaryPsychological amnesia Also known as dissociative amnesia, this is caused by an emotional shock, such as: • a violent crime • sexual or other abuse • military combat • a natural disaster • a terrorist act Any intolerable life situation that causes severe psychological stress and internal conflict can lead to some degree of amnesia. Psychological stressors are more likely to disrupt personal, historical memories rather than interfere with laying down new memories.Diagnosis A doctor will need to rule out other possible causes of memory loss, including dementia, Alzheimer's disease, depression, or a brain tumor. They will take a detailed medical history, which may be difficult if the patient does not remember. Family members or caregivers may need to be present. The doctor will need the patient's permission to talk about their medical details with somebody else.Treatment In most cases, amnesia resolves itself without treatment. However, if an underlying physical or mental disorder is present, treatment may be necessary. Psychotherapy can help some patients. Hypnosis can be an effective way of recalling memories that have been forgotten. Family support is crucial. Photographs, smells, and music may help. Treatment often involves techniques and strategies to help compensate for the memory problem.

[Article]Home Fires In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a residence can be engulfed in flames. • Fire is FAST! In less than 30 seconds a small flame can turn into a major fire. It only takes minutes for thick black smoke to fill a house or for it to be engulfed in flames. • Fire is HOT! Heat is more threatening than flames. Room temperatures in a fire can be 100 degrees at floor level and rise to 600 degrees at eye level. Inhaling this super-hot air will scorch your lungs and melt clothes to your skin. • Fire is DARK! Fire starts bright, but quickly produces black smoke and complete darkness. • Fire is DEADLY! Smoke and toxic gases kill more people than flames do. Fire produces poisonous gases that make you disoriented and drowsy. Asphyxiation is the leading cause of fire deaths, exceeding burns by a three-to-one ratio.Before a Fire Create and Practice a Fire Escape Plan In the event of a fire, remember that every second counts, so you and your family must always be prepared. Escape plans help you get out of your home quickly. Twice each year, practice your home fire escape plan.  Some tips to consider when preparing this plan include: • Find two ways to get out of each room in the event the primary way is blocked by fire or smoke. • A secondary route might be a window onto a neighboring roof or a collapsible ladder for escape from upper story windows. • Make sure that windows are not stuck, screens can be taken out quickly, and that security bars can be properly opened. • Practice feeling your way out of the house in the dark or with your eyes closed. • Teach children not to hide from firefighters.More Fire Safety Tips • Make digital copies of valuable documents and records like birth certificates. • Sleep with your door closed. • Contact your local fire department for information on training on the proper use and maintenance of fire extinguishers. • Consider installing an automatic fire sprinkler system in your residence.During a Fire • Crawl low under any smoke to your exit - heavy smoke and poisonous gases collect first along the ceiling. • Before opening a door, feel the doorknob and door. If either is hot, or if there is smoke coming around the door, leave the door closed and use your second way out. • If you open a door, open it slowly. Be ready to shut it quickly if heavy smoke or fire is present. • If you can’t get to someone needing assistance, leave the home and call 9-1-1 or the fire department. Tell the emergency operator where the person is located. • If pets are trapped inside your home, tell firefighters right away. • If you can’t get out, close the door and cover vents and cracks around doors with cloth or tape to keep smoke out.  Call 9-1-1 or your fire department. Say where you are and signal for help at the window with a light-colored cloth or a flashlight. • If your clothes catch fire, stop, drop, and roll – stop immediately, drop to the ground, and cover your face with your hands.  Roll over and over or back and forth until the fire is out.  If you or someone else cannot stop, drop, and roll, smother the flames with a blanket or towel.  Use cool water to treat the burn immediately for 3 to 5 minutes.  Cover with a clean, dry cloth.  Get medical help right away by calling 9-1-1 or the fire department.Fire Escape Planning for Older Adults and People with Access or Functional Needs • Live near an exit. You'll be safest on the ground floor if you live in an apartment building. If you live in a multi-story home, arrange to sleep on the ground floor, and near an exit. • If you use a walker or wheelchair, check all exits to be sure you get through the doorways. • Make any necessary accommodations, such as providing exit ramps and widening doorways, to facilitate an emergency escape. • Speak to your family members, building manager, or neighbors about your fire safety plan and practice it with them. • Contact your local fire department's non-emergency line and explain your special needs. Ask emergency providers to keep your special needs information on file. • Keep a phone near your bed and be ready to call 911 or your local emergency number if a fire occurs.


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