Plant seeds

by arthuraloian
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Plant seeds

By the Permian period, seed plants were producing large trees and by the Triassic, all major seed plant groups existed except for flowering plants. 2.

Seed Plants!

Kingdom Plantae, Subkingdom Embreophyta, Spermatophyta.By Arthur Aloian

Seeds trace back as early as the late devonian period. The oldest seed found was a fossilized elkinscia polymorpha, a seed fern, located in west virginia. 3.

Spermatophytes diversified into five groups.- cycads-ginkos-conifers-angiosperms-gnetophytes2.

Early seed plants were not as evolved as modern seeding plants. They did not contain things like flowers or cones where their fruit and seeds could be found. Seeds were regularly found on the branches of these less-evolved plants. 3.

Originated 19 million years ago via a genetic mutation event that took place causing an evolutionary change that allowed these new breeds of plants to reproduce sexually. 3.

Early seeds were usually found in pairs. within cup-like structures called cupules. Pollen from a male plant would enter and fertilize the female egg cell. 2.

Spermatophytes or "seed plants" are a subset of embryophytes a.k.a. land plants. 1.

In modern seed plants small chambers made from pollen appeared in the micropyles also known as the integumen, a layer of tissue found in all seeds. 1.

Many seeds are considered edible, and are present in foods like ceareals, legumes, and nuts. Seeds also provide a basis for cooking oils, beverages, spices, and food additives. Seeds are important, as they are used to propagate crops in farming, as well as being eaten in livestock. Some seeds are rendered poisonous and deadly. Some seeds can also be used in non food oils, like castor oil, tea tree oil, and laetrile, which are used in medicines. 3.

By the end of the Devonian, lyginopterids appeared. The Carboniferous period saw anincrease in the number and kinds of seed plants. In NorthAmerica pteridosperms and cordaites grew in number, how ever coirdates are belived to be closer reletivs of modern conifers. Seed plants were thus overshadowed in their early evolution, by non seeding plants. By the late carboniferous period voltziales appeared, which are belived to be the closest reletivs to modern conifers. 3.

Cited Pages.1. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/seedplants/seedplants.html Introduction to Spermatophytes 2. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/seedplants/seedplantsfr.html Seed Plants: Fossil Record3.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seed Seed Wikipedia4.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iv5JjH4kD1k youtube video seed plants Biology Botany

Cite Pictures: (order left to right)http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/special/xeriscape/drought-tolerant-flowers.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debora_Green#mediaviewer/File:Ricinus_communis_008.JPGhttp://www.gridclub.com/subscribers/info/fact_gadget_2009/1001/human_world/prehistoric_people/635.htmlhttp://www.iherb.com/Now-Foods-Real-Food-Certified-Organic-Golden-Flax-Seeds-32-oz-907-g/7252


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