Plant Biology Chapters 23 and 24

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Plant Biology Chapters 23 and 24

Tissues of a eudicot root include epidermus, cortex, endodermis. and vascular tissue. Roots also specialize to their environment. The shoot apical meristem is protected within the terminal bud. Stems can be varried. Herbaceous stems exhibit only primary growth. Woody stems exhibit both primary and secondary growth. Horizontal stems are called stolons or rhizomes when underground.

All land plants exhibit an alternation of generations. Spores are the haploid genreation which fuse to form a diploid sporophyte. Embryophyta prevents spores from drying out. Sporangia are produced by sporophytes and produce spores by meiosis. Most land plants also contain cuticles, which prevent water loss, and stomata, which allow gas exchange.

Plant Biology!Chapters 23 and 24

Chapter 23:Plant Evolution and Diversity

Chapter 24:Flowering Plants: Structure and Organization

The body of a leaf is composed of mesophyll tissue. Leaves are also diverse and specialized to particular plants.

Plants are multicellular, phototsynthetic eukaryotes whose evolution is marked by adaptations to a land existence. A land enviroment offers certain advantages to plants; there is a greater access to sunlight and carbon dioxide on land. However, land plants must adapt in order to maintain water and structure. Plants are related to ancestral charophytes. Plants and charophytes both share cellulose cell walls, plasmodesmata, and the placenta.

Byophytes were the first plants to colonize land. Vascular tissue is specialized for the transport of water and organic nutrients throughout a plant. Bryophytes are nonvascular plants and their are multiple types. Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses which are the largest group of nonvascuar plants. Vascular plants dominate the natural landscape. These plants absorb water from the soil and have a xylem which transports the water through the stem. Vascuar plants originated as bushes. Pteridophytes are seedless vascular plants. But both types of vascular plants have megaphylls, which are broad leaves with strands of vascular tissue. Pteridophytes include horsetails, whisk ferns, and ferns.

Seed plants use pollenation to spread their spores. The four living types of gymnosperms are conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and gentophytes. These are non-flowering plants whereas angiosperms are flowering plants. Flowers are diverse and have long life cycles.

Flowering plants share many common characteristics such as a root system and a shoot system, which consists of the leaves and the stem. A root system is always about the size of the shoot system and absorbs water from the soil. The stem supports the leaves and structure of the plant and transports water through its vascular tissue.

Leaves carry on most of the photosynthesis in a plant. Transpiration also occurs on leaves. Transpiration is the process in which water evaporates from the stomata of a leaf and is replaced by more water from the xylem. Monocots have one cotyledon. Eudiccots have two or more cotyledons.

Apical meristems increase the length of stems and roots. Epidermal tissue forms the outer protective covering of a plant. Ground tissue fills the interior of a plant. Vascular tissue transports water and nutrients within the plant as well as providing support.


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