[2015] Joy Weru: Physical Science

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[2015] Joy Weru: Physical Science

Physical Science

AtomsMatter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Atoms are the building blocks of matter. All matter is made out of atoms.An atom has tree parts which consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. A proton has a positive charge, a nuetron has no charge, and electrons have a negative charge. The proton and nuetron are located in the center of the atom known as the nucleus while electrons orbit the nucleus.Atoms always have the same amount of protons as electrons, but nuetrons have about the same amount of protons in an atom.

MomentumMomentum depends on the objects mass and velocity. The more momentum the object has the harder it is to stop it. Newton's third law is related to momentum. When a moving object hits another object some or all of the momentum of the first object is transferred to the object that is hit.

Elements, Compounds, and MixturesElements are a pure substance made up of one type of atom. Compounds are pure substances coposed of two or more different elements comined by a chemical reation. A mixture is a combination of two or more sustances that are not chemicaly combined.

Matter in MotionMotion is when an object changes position over time relative to a reference point. Friction is a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact. The surface of any object is rough even the surfaces, such as a table, have microscopic hills and valleys. A simple pull or push is a force. The earth orbits the sun and the moon orbits the earth. The force that causes these actions is gravity. Gravity is a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses pulling objects towards each other.

Property of MatterPhysical properties are the things that describe the object and can be observed without changing the object itself. Such as color, solubility, state, density, malleability, ductility, and conductivity. Physical changes are a change in a substance that affects one of its hysical properties, but it's identity stays the same. For example defromation is a physical change. Chemical properties are a way to describe matter based on its ability to change into different matter with different properties like the reactivity with oxygen. Chemical changes are changes that result in prodution of a new substance. Indicators that a chemical change has ocurred are change in color, teperature, and volume, light is produced, precipitate forms, bubbles appear, melting and boiling point change, and rusting.

Newton's Laws of MotionNewton's first law states that an object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion remains in motion at a constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an un balanced force. His second law says the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied. All forces act in pairs, there is an action force and a reaction force. His third law states whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.

Acids, Bases, and SaltsAn acid is a solution that has an excess of H+ ions. The properties of an acid are the sour taste, can conduct electricity, are corrosive, react strongly with metals, and turns blue litmus paper red. A base is a solution is a solution that has an access of OH- ions. The properties of a bass are the slippery feeling, the bitter taste, corrosive, can conduct electricity, don't react with metals, and turn red litmus paper blue. Common salts include sodium chloride, potassium iodide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium carbonate, and ammonium nitrate.

Nuclear ReationUnstable isotopes can become stable by releasing different types of particals also known as radioactive decay. Many active decay results in the emission of either an alpha particle, a beta particle, or a gamma ray. An alpha particle is identical to that of a helium nucleus. It contains two protons and two neutrons. Beta decay occurs when a neutron changes into a proton and an electron. As a result of beta decay, the nucleus has one less neutron, but one extra proton. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation with high frequency. Excess energy from the atom is emitted as gamma rays. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus into smaller fragments by bombarding it with neutrons. Nuclear fission is used for bombs and nuclear power. Nuclear fusion is a nuclei combine to produce a nucleus of greater mass, mainly found in the sun.

Bonding and NomenclatureA chemical bond is a force that holds 2 atoms together. All atoms have valence electrons. Noble gasses have eight valence electrons since they they have eight valence electrons they don't form bonds or compounds. Having eight valence electrons is important in the stability of atoms. All atoms want to have eight valence electrons therefore there is the octet rule. The octect rule states that atoms tend to gain, loose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons.

Types of MixturesSolutions, suspensions, and colloids are the different types of mixtures. A soulution is a mixture with two or more particles. Particals are so small you can't see. Does not settle, can't be caught in filter, and doesn't scatter light. In a suspension particales are distributed through out and are heavy enough to settle out. They are large enough to be seen, can be cought by filter, settle out, an scattered light bounces around. In a colloid particals are evenly distributed and suspended and suspended through out. Small particals are not as small as solusions, particales cannot be caught in a filter, and scatter light does not go through.

The Periodic TableDimitri Mendeleev introduced a chart summarizing the known properties of the elements to his students. He arranged the original 60 elemants in order by their increasing masses, but he left blanks because he predicted there were missing elements. The periodic table is arranged by the type of element, state of element, and the mass of the element. It's organized with groups and periods.


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