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Photsynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Calvin Cycle

Light Reaction Cycle

Cellular RespirationCellular respiration is the process of breking down organic compunds for energy.

PhotosynthesisConverting electromagnetic energy into chemical potential energy and releasing oxygen as a waste product

The formula for photosynthesis is: 6H20+6C02+sunlight-----> C6H12O6+6O2. The reactants in photosytnthesis are H20 and CO2, and the products are C6h12O6 and O2, but in cellular respiration the products and reactants are switched. Meaning that In cellular respiration the reactants are C6H12O6 and O2 while the products are H20 and C02.

Both cycles

In the light reaction cycle plants take in sunlight and transform it into NADPH and ATP. In the Calvin cycle plants use the NADPH and ATP made in the light reaction cycle and convert it to glucose. The light reaction cycle occurs in the thylakoid stacks known as grana, and the calvin cycle occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast.

Respiration is the process by which cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds. There are two different types of respiration, aerobic and anaerobic. The difference between the two is that aerobic uses oxygen as its final electron acceptor, and anaerobic does not use oxygen at all. Aerobic is more efficient because it does use oxygen, and it is 66% efficient, while anaerobic is only 3.5% efficient. Both types of respiration occur in the cytoplasm (prokaryote)or the mitochondria (eukaryote) of a cell. Eukaryotes and most other organisms use aerobic respiration, while prokaryotes amd other organisms with little oxygen use anaerobic respiration.

The first part of aerobic respiration is glycolysis. This is the process where glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvic acids. This happens in the cytoplasm in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

The last step is the electron transport chain. This changes the electron carriers made in the Krebs cycle and pumps them across a concentration gradient creating more ATP. This happens in the mitochondrial membrane for eukaryotes and in the cytoplasm for prokaryotes.

The second part of aerobic respiration is the krebs cycle. In the Krebs cycle pyruvic acid is broken down to form ATP, NADH, and FADH2 (electron carriers) this occurs in the mitochondrial membrane for eukaryotes and in the cell membrane for prokaryotes.

Lactic Acid Fermentation: This process breaks down pyruvate molecules and forms lactic acid molecules. This fermentation occurs in our muscle cells.

Alcoholic Fermentation:This process breaks down pyruvate acid into ethyl alcohal and carbon dioxide. This occurs in all yeast cells.

ADP moves accross a proton gradient when it binds with ATP synthase and it is then transported by electron carriers and is then made into ATP.


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