Photochemical Smog and Prevention

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by EYES99
Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Environmental Studies

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Photochemical Smog and Prevention

☁ Reduce use of vehicles main source of air pollution according to the California Air Resources Board☁ Cycling, carpooling with friends and take public transport, walk.☁ Turning off electrical appliances when not in use.☁ Install energy saving light bulbs☁ Recycle paper, plastic and metal☁ 3 ‘R’s

Videos

Prevention of air pollution

Air Pollution: Photochemical Smog

ReferencesMcMahon, M., Harris, B., & Conjecture Corporation. (2013). What is Photochemical Smog? (with picture). Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-photochemical-smog.htmlGow, T., & Pidwirny, M. (1996, October 17). Photochemical Smog. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869J/CHEM869JLinks/royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/smog.htmlDemand Media., & Oldhand, T. (1999). Ways to Prevent Smog | eHow. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8241529_ways-prevent-smog.htmlDemand Media., & Woods, D. (1999). Ways to Reduce Smog | eHow. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.ehow.com/list_6149985_ways-reduce-smog.htmlAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (n.d.). ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Sulfur Dioxide. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=251&tid=46Conserve-Energy-Future. (n.d.). Causes and Effects of Smog - Conserve Energy Future. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/SmogPollution.php#sthash.CAB89ta4.dpufAgency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (n.d.). ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Sulfur Dioxide. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=251&tid=46Charmaine, M., & Demand Media, Inc. (n.d.). Effect of Photochemical Smog | eHow. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6575829_effect-photochemical-smog.htmlConserve-Energy-Future. (n.d.). Causes and Effects of Smog - Conserve Energy Future. Retrieved June 29, 2014, from http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/SmogPollution.php#sthash.CAB89ta4.dpuf

The two most dominant toxic components of photochemical smog are ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Sunlight breaks down nitrogen dioxide (NO2) back into nitrogen oxide (NO).NO2 + sunlight »»» NO + OThe remaining oxygen atom (O) formed in the reaction then reacts with the oxygen molecules, producing ozone (O3).O + O2 »»» O3Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can also react with radicals produced from volatile organic compounds to form toxic products like peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN).NO2 + Hydrocarbons (molecule made of C, H and other atoms) »»» products such as PAN

Definition

Prevention

Formation

Photochemical smog is haze in the atmosphere accompanied by high levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2), caused by the action of sunlight on pollutants like volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) and hydrocarbons, especially those in automobile exhaust.

Photochemical Smog and Prevention

Impacts

On people:☁ Damage lungs☁ Ill effect on everyone☁ Painful irritation of the eyes and respiratory system☁ Trigger asthma attack☁ Inflammation in the tissues of lungs☁ Sensitive to ozone, main component of photochemical smog

On the environment:☁ Causes problems for plants and animal life☁ Decimate these sensitive crops☁ Interfere with the growth and productivity of trees☁ Decreases lung capacity and lung elasticity in animals☁ Kills innumerable animal species☁ Green life takes time to adapt

Nitrogen Oxides:☁ Decreased visibility due to yellowish color of NO2☁ NO2 contributes to heart and lung problems☁ NO2 can suppress plantgrowth☁ Decreased resistance to infection☁ May encourage the spread of cancer

Ozone:☁ Bronchial constriction☁ Coughing, wheezing☁ Respiratory irritation☁ Eye irritation☁ Decreased crop yields☁ Retards plant growth☁ Damages plastics☁ Breaks down rubber☁ Harsh odor

Carbon Monoxide☁ Inhibits the blood's ability to carry oxygen to body tissues☁ Combines with the oxygen carrying haemoglobin [carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)]☁ Haemoglobin is no longer available for transporting oxygen.

Singapore in 2013. Caused by smoke from fires in Indonesia being blown across the Straits of Malacca by winds. Referred to as smog due to the hazardous PSI reading of 401 on June 21.

The urban area of Mexico City which has trapped industrial and vehicle pollution with regards to it’s valley-like position. Polluted with nitrogen dioxide around twice to thrice international standards.The most infamously smog-plagued city of Latin America.


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