Philip II of Macedonia

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by csli21
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Historical biographies

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Philip II of Macedonia

Philip II of Macedon took the throne from his brother Perdiccas III. He received the throne when the Illyrians were taking over little by little from the north and Thebes was growing at a very fast rate to the south. His kingdom of Macedon was losing power in the Ancient Greek world. He quickly assembled an army and began his campaign against the Illyrians. He met the Illyrians in battle, and killed 7000 of their soldiers. The Illyrians quickly fled back and northern Macedon was free. He quickly made being a soldier a full-time, well-paid job; so soldiers did not have to go back home during harvest and growing seasons. He had full-time soldiers that were at his service all year. He then conquered Illyria. He moved his army south and conquered Thrace. After conquering Thrace Philip began a war with Athens. Even though Athens had a powerful navy, they could not hold back Philip’s powerful army. He was voted ruler of the Thessalian League in 352 BC. He conquered almost all of Greece and began training his army of Greek soldiers to invade Persia. A few days before his campaign to Persia, he was killed at a celebration in 336 BC.

Philip II's Conquests and Treaties

382 BC: Philip II of Macedon was born. 368 BC- 365 BC: Philip II of Macedon was a hostage in Thebes.359 BC: Perdiccas III, Philip's brother, dies in battle, and Philip recieves the throne.359 BC: Philip started a campaign against the Illyrains.357 BC: Breaks treaty with Athens and captures Amphipolis after marrying Olympias, mother of Alexander the Great.338 BC: Philip invades and conquers Greece while Alexander the Great leads the cavalry. 338 BC: Philip becomes the leader of the Corinthian League. 337 BC: Philip reveals plans of invading Persia to the Corinthian League.336 BC: Philip begins his invasion on Persian, but he is killed by one of his own bodyguards, Pausanius of Orestis. 336 BC: Alexander inherits the throne and continues his father's invasion .

Even though Philip took the throne when Macedonia was at the verge of collapsing, he was not discouraged. He quickly formed a campaign against the raiding Illyrians from the North. He met them in battle and crushed the Illyrians. They quickly fled in terror as 7000 of their troops lay dead on the battlefield. The Macedonian army grew overnight and raided Illyria stopping at the Adriatic coast. After northern Macedon was free of the Illyrians, Philip began to reorganize his army. He made the military a full-time, well-paid occupation, so his soldiers didn’t have to return to the farms. Philip began to make treaties with other city states. He made treaties with Athens but later broke that treaty when he invaded and took total control of Greece. He quickly made strict laws and made sure his conquered people had fierce loyalty toward him. Once he began to train male citizens to become soldiers, he began his plan to invade the powerful, large kingdom of Persia. Before he could invade Persia he was killed. Alexander the Great later continued his father’s dream of invading Persia.

Philip's Childhood

Philip II of Macedonia was born in 382 B.C to Eurydice I and Amyntas III. He grew up seeing his brothers failing to rule- each for several years- the kingdom of Macedon or Macedonia. Thebes was a large superpower threatening the Macedonians. The Illyrians were invading from the north causing another problem. Philip spent most of his childhood as a hostage in Thebes. He received an education from Epaminondas, a Theban general. He lived with Pammenes, another Theban general that was closely bonded with Epaminondas. In 364 B.C., he returned to Macedon to find his brother Perdiccas III on the throne. He went to lead his army of 7000 soldiers to fight Illyrians, but was caught off guard and 4000 soldiers died including the king himself. Phillip’s two elder brothers were dead, and he claimed the throne at age 23 in 359 B.C.

Philip II's Death

Philip II was going to his daughter Cleopatra's wedding when he was assasinated. His daughter was marrying Alexander I of Epirus. There was a large ceremony being planned for the wedding. As Philip walked ahead of his bodyguards to show he had nothing to be afraid of, he was stabbed in the back with a fatal blow by Pausanius of Orestis, one of Philip's guards. As Pausanius was attempting to escape he tripped over a vine and was killed by the hands of three of Philip's other bodyguards. He did not get to continue his dream of conquering Persia.

Philip II of Macedonia

Philip's Reign over Macedonia

Macedonia

Philip's Life

Macedon (also known as Macedonia) was a kingdom in Hellenistic Greece. It was located on the northeastern part of the Greek Peninsula. bordered by Epirus to the west, Paenoia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. The capitals of Macedon changed between Aigai and Pella. The kingdom’s currency was the Tetradrachm. The kingdom was monarchy meaning one leader had total power. This empire spread under the ruling of the monarchs, Philip II and Alexander the Great, it later declined when tensions between Rome and Macedon caused a war leading to a great loss in Macedon. Philip II led the kingdom of Macedon to become a Greek superpower during the Hellenistic Age.


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