Patellar dislocations

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by Anu98
Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Human Anatomy
Grade:
12

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Patellar dislocations

Patellar Dislocations

What is it?The patella, or kneecap is a bone which lies in front of the knee joint. It glides up and down a groove called the patellofemoral groove at the front of the thigh bone or femur as the knee bends. The patella is attached to the quadriceps muscle via the quadriceps tendon and acts to increase the leverage from this muscle group when straightening the knee. Dislocation of the patella occurs when the patella moves or is moved to the outside of the patellofemoral groove and onto the bony head of the femur (lateral femoral condyle).

How does it happen?Patellar dislocations occur in athletes when they are subjected to rapid change in directions or twisting. Direct blows can cause severe damage as well. The force causing the dislocation is much greater and hence can cause severe damage to restraining ligaments as well. The factors which make a patella dislocation more likely are insufficient quadriceps strength on the inside of the knee, over pronation of the feet and an what is known as an increased Q angle of the knee.NOTE:Over pronation of the feet is when the heel bends outwards making an arch This causes the leg to turn inwards which leaves the patella susceptible to moving outwards as the quadriceps contract.The Q-angle is the angle between the lower leg bone and the knee. When they straighten their leg patella is forced to the outside of the knee potentially resulting in patellar dislocation.

What are the symptoms?1.Extreme pain untill relocation occurs2.Rapid and acute swelling3.continued pain along medial ligaments4.Discoloration medially at site of ligament

A non dislocated knee joint

How is it treated?For athletesApply RICE ( rest, ice, compression and elevation) principles to the injured knee. Ice can be applied for 10 to 15 minutes every hour initially reducing to 2 or 3 times a days as swelling and symptoms reduce. Nonsurgical TreatmentImmobilization. Your doctor may recommend that your child wear a brace for 3 to 4 weeks. This stabilizes the knee while it heals.Weightbearing. Because putting weight on the knee may cause pain and slow the healing process, your doctor may recommend using crutches for the first week or two after the injury.Surgical TreatmentIf the patient's patella dislocates multiple times, or continues to be unstable despite therapy and bracing, surgery may be recommended to correct the problem. The type of surgery will depend on the cause of the unstable kneecap.Surgical treatments often involve reconstructing the ligaments that hold the patella in place. This surgery is sometimes performed arthroscopically—using a tiny camera and miniature surgical instruments inserted through small incisions.

Sources:http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00707http://www.sportsinjuryclinic.net/sport-injuries/knee-pain/patellar-dislocationimages: http://www.island.lk/userfiles/image/2014/05/22/p10-3.jpghttp://www.artintercepts.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/knee-dislocation.jpg

By: Anagha Sanne period 4

How to prevent patellar dislocations?Patellar dislocations can be prevented by performing simple strengthening exercises. There are 4 main muscle groups in the knee that should be targeted and they are the front thigh muscles, back thigh muscle. Excercises like cycling can prevent patellar dislocations as they strengthen the quadrecepts.


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