Nervous System

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by JosephSchneider
Last updated 4 years ago

Human Anatomy

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Nervous System

Basic Structure/function

The nervous system is responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitorconditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body.


Neurons, also known as nerve cells, communicate within the body by transmitting electrochemical signals.-Dendrites: Recieve input-Axon: Conducts impulses away from the cell body.-Axon Hillock: An enlarged area where an Axon attaches to the cell body.-Synaptic Terminal: Neurotransmitters are made and released from synaptic terminals.-Synapse: The junction between the synaptic terminal and another cell.

Central Nervous System (CNS)

The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system, or CNS. The CNS acts as the control center of the body by providing its processing, memory, and regulation systems.The central nervous system (CNS) is made up of the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord which process data and provide output to the body. The CNS is made up of the brain, brain stem, and spinal chord. The brain stem connects the spinal chord to the forebrain and cerebrum while the spinal chord extends from the brain stem through the spine. It has nerves branching off to different part of the body to carry out various bodily functions. Control centers of the brain include the cerebrum and the cerebellum. In humans it is the largest part of the brain and is the seat of motor and sensory functions, and the higher mental functions such as consciousness, thought, reason, emotion, and memory.Part of the hindbrain in vertebrates. In humans it lies between the brainstem and the cerebrum, and plays an important role in sensory perception, motor output, balance and posture.

Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis. The sympathetic nervous system is described as being complementary to the parasympathetic nervous system which stimulates the body to "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed".

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs.The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. This system is the primary mechanism in control of the fight-or-flight response.

The somatic nervous system (SoNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscle voluntary control of body movements. Afferent nerves are responsible for relaying sensation to the central nervous system; efferent nerves are responsible for stimulating muscle contraction, including all the non-sensory neurons connected with skeletal muscles and skin.

A nerve impulse is an electrical signal that travels along an axon. When the nerve is activated, there is a sudden change in the voltage across the wall of the axon, caused by the movement of the ions in and out of the neuron. This then triggers a wave of electrical activity that passes from the cell body along the length of the axon to the synapse.

Reflex arc

Sympathetic nervous system

Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system

Nerve Impulse

The Nervous System


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