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Nelson Mandela

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Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Historical biographies

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Nelson Mandela

The Beginnings (1918-1941)Rolihlahla was born on 18 July, 1918 in a small village just south of Qunu, in the Transka province of South Africa. His name means "troublemaker" in the Xhosa language. At the age of 7, he went to school, the only one of his brothers and sisters to do so. On his first day of school, his teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave hi the English name of Nelson, the name which later became famous. At the age of 9, his father died and his mother took him to live with his uncle, Chief Jongintaba. Nelson and his mother didn´t talk as they walked, but much later Nelson wrote: "The silence of the heart between mother and child in not a lonely one. My mother and I never talked very much, but we did not need to". Nelson lived with his uncle, aunt and cousins at the Great Palace of the Thembu in Mahekezweni, where he learn how a history of the African people. In the 1939, his uncle, sent him to the University College of Fort Hare, where he was elected to be part of the students committee and he protest against college. As they desagreed, his cousin Justice and he, secretly leave Mahkezweni and go to Johannesburg.

Nelson MandelaRowena Akinyemi

Johannesburg (1941-1952)In 1941, Nelson arrived to Johannesburg with Justice, he worked as a guard at one of their gold mines but as he escaped from home, he losted them job. He lived in the african township of Alexandra, as he was so poor he had to walk 10 hours to work everyday. Later hs uncle, Chief Jongintaba, died, Justice took the power but Nelson returned to Johannesburg, he studied law and married Evelyn Mase, he also have 2 kids but one of them died. He was also elected to the African National Congress in which he started the Defiance campaign with Olivier Tambo, Communist Party and Indian Congress. The idea behind this campaign was to show defiance, to refuse to obey the laws that were not fair. He was arrested for 2 days but this campaign give him the people confident.

Walking to Freedom (1985-1994)In January 1958, President P.W. Botha stood up in the Parliament and affered Nelson his freedom if he stopped using violence. In February 19990, the President Klerk met with Mandela and told him that he was going to be released the next day. After his release, he discovered that his wife has fallen in love with a young lawyer. In April 1992, he told the world that he was separating from his wife. On April 27, 19994, the first election for all people took place. On May 10, Nelson became President.

Working for the ANC (1953-1960)Mandela was still working hard, this time he was protesting against the government because Sophiatown was being destoyed because a lot of Africans live there. They got no success, they were banned. Mandela returned home and finish his marriage with Evelyn. The meetings with government continued and he married Winnie in 1958 who was mother of his 2 daughters. Mandela was still wworking with the ANC in secret, he had to travel around the country to create protest without being caught.

Prison and Separation (1971-1984)In 1975, Nelson´s daughter Zindi, came with Winnie to visit him. Mandela and Winnie decided to send their daughter to school in Swaziland. In 1976, Winnie was arrested and was sent to the prison in Johannesburg for 5 months. Her youngest daughter nvisited him for the fist time , but now with a husband and a baby. Nelson and other political prisoners where sent to another prison, where he was able to hug and kiss her wife for the fist time in 20 years.

The new South Africa (19994-1999)In 1995, he travelled to India, Japan, Russia, China, France, New Zealandand U.S. He also worked for peace in Africa so he travelled to Tanzana, Lesotho, Botswana, Uganda, Libya, and Mozambique. In 19998 he married Graca Machel, on his 80th birthday. Before Nelson, she was married to Mozambique´s President, who died in a plane crash in 1986. In 1999 there were elections again and Thabo Mbeki was elected president.

Robben Island (1964-1970)When they arrived to the prison it was winter so it was so cold. Political prisones where separated from ordinary ones. Cells where 2 meters square, they lived in terrible conditions. They were forced to work outside. They were allowed to receive one letter every 6 months and one visit, Nelson helped some of the ordinary prisioners with their problem through hidden messages. In 1968 her mother, sister and daughters visited him. Weeks later his mother died. Like 2 years later, his eldest son died in a car accident.

The Rivona Trial (1963-1964)In July 1963, the Rivona Trial began. The accused thought they were gonna due because in 1962, a new law gave the court enough poer to give death sentences for crimes of sabotage. On June 1964, the accused where found guilty, and they were wainting all the night to hear their sentence. The judge said "The sentence is one of life imprisonment".

The Spear of the Nation (1961-1962)Nelson knew he could be sent to prison. In this years he realized that violence was necessary in order to change the government, so they created a group called MK, which was separated from the ANC. In January 1962, Nelson went to a meeting with some African leaders and thanked them for the help in the fight against apartheid. In 1962, Mandela was caught and arrested again, he was sentenced for 5 years, then the UN asked all countries to refuse to buy anything from South Africa.

A quieter life (2000-2005)In this stage he went to live to Qunu, to spend more time with his family. He was still invited to important events, but he wasn´t into the politics anymore.

Karla Montserrat López Ramírez 1°A


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