Neanderthal Genome Lives

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Neanderthal Genome Lives

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Surprise! 20 Percent of Neanderthal Genome Lives On in Modern Humans, Scientists Find...

Introductionfirstly, what does Neanderthal mean?Neanderthal man is an extinct speicies of human. features of Neanderthal were first found amoung Europeans, however, scientists agreed that Neanderthal shared a common ancestor in Africa within the last 500,000 years (Special Feature: The Neandertal Genome, 2014).They lived in Euroupe and Southwestern to Central Asia about 200,000 to 28,000 years ago.researchers believe that at least one-fifth of modern humans have the Neanderthal genome, which is influecncing our skin, hair, and the disease pople have today (Q, By Charles, 2014).Scientists define features of their skull include the large middle part of face, angled cheek bones, and mostly huge nose. Their body was shorter than ours, however they had a lage brain, like us ( Homo Neanderthalensis,2014).

Neanderthal Influence on Skin, Hair.... Evolution by natural selection!!!Through evolution by natural selection, characteristics of a population change over many geneation, and the heritable traits that adopt to the environment will survive and reproduce, passing traits to offsprings. Evolution applies for hair and skin color too. for example, one kind of gene, POU2F3, which is the neanderthal version of skin gene is found in 66 percent of East Asians, and another version of Neanderthal gene, BNC2, which affects skin clolor is found in 70 percen of Europeans (Yong, Ed, 2014) This evidence shows that mostly POU2F skin gene adopt to the East Asians' environment and survived, while BNC2 which affects skin color adopt to Europeans' environment. Therefore, we as humans share common traits and genes with Neanderthal genome, however it is not the exact same thing but there are similarities.

Are we directly related to Neanderthals? If not, what is our common ancestor?when modern humans migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years ago, scienists found that Eurasian continent already inhabited by braeny, big-broes Neanderthal. DNA evidences shows that these Neanderthal humans produces offspring, because poeple living in Africa today are composed of 1 to 4 percent Neanderthal DNA(Yong,Ed, 2014).The fact that we as humans are closely related to the Neanderthals is not worng, we share similar characteristics such as hair color and skin-however these characteriscts changed over time- which proves that we are related to Neanderthals.BUT, they are not our direct ancestors. Fossils and Genetic data shows that Neanderthals are a distinct species that developed as a side branch in our family tree.(Homo Neanderthalensis a The Neanderthals - Australian Museum)In this course we learned that comparision of the human genetic code with that of other organisms show that Chimpanzees are nearly genetically identical to humans, which means there is more chance that our common ancestor are Chimpanzees.

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Gene Flow and DNA evidenceAs individuals migrate, there will be a net movement of alleles from one population to another.Scientists found that genes involved in making Keratin- the protein found in our skin, hair and nails- are rich in Neanderthal DNA (Yong, Ed, 2014).This evidence shows that there was a gene flow between Neanderthal genome and humans that trandformed from generations to generations.In addition, the Neanderthal DNA that was found shows the evolutionary relationships between organisms. Since DNA carries genetic information, it can be determined how closely related two organisms are by comparing their DNA. In this was, scienctis can find the similiraties between the modern human genome and Neanderthal genome by comparing their DNA.By using DNA evidnece, scientists found that Neanderthal variants in genes affect the risk of several diseases, including lupus, biliary cirrhosis and Crohn's disease( Yong,Ed, 2014). This evidence shows that Neanderthals passed their DNA to their offsprings and then to us. Since we are closely related to them, it is clear that they passed some diseases to us.

Extinction Neanderthals persisted for hundreds of thousands of years in extremely harsh conditions. However they no longer exist. Neanderthals has completely disappeared from earth due to different reasons. One of the resons behind their disappearance was the source of considerable debate, however most of the scientists believe that competitive exclusion, not climate change, is indeed the reason of extinction(William Banks, 2014)

Interesting Facts!1.Neanderthals were "kissed by fire" in more ways than one. Genetic analysis of Neanderthal remains has revealed that some of them sported red hair. This mutation is different in Neanderthals than the corresponding ginger gene in humans.2.They were extreme travelers.3.They had great vision and terrible social skills, andNeanderthals' brains were about the same size as our own.4.The very oldest Neanderthals were likely scavengers, who recovered food from other hunting animals.5. Neanderthals did have some control of fire.

Fossil Discoveries...Based on Fossil bones alone, anthropologists would predicted that Neanderthals contributed to the keratin filaments and immune system of modern poeple (Yong, Ed, 2014). Fossil record is the remain of past life that could be found in the sedimetry rocks, which hepls sicentists to understand the history of life on earth.Fossil records shows that Neanderthals had heavy teeth which helped them to hold animal skins or other objects(Homo Neanderthalensis a The Neanderthals - Australian Museum).Fossils can provide scientists a unique view into the history of life by showing the forms and features of life in the past.By using fossil record scientists can discover the characteristics of Neanderthals and how these characteristics are similar in modern humans.

Lets see what have you learned!1) Name 2 characteristics of Neanderthals.2)Do u think it is possible that neaderthal and humans could interbreed and produce an offspring that could reproduce?3)Did neanderthal know how to use fire?4) How did Neanderthals disappeared? Explain.5)Were neanderthals hunters or gatherers?


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