National Geography Standards

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National Geography Standards

Standard 5: Regional GeographyFocus: The US and Mexico borderlands can be described as both a formal and a functional region. This is because of shared characteristics such as climate and the state of nature. This is proven by agreements between US and Mexican program agencies that engage in water resource management activities in the region.

Resources:Brown, C. (2005, September). Transboundary water resource issues on the US-Mexico border. Retrieved from

Standard 1: Maps and Other Geographic RepresentationsFocus: U.S.-Mexico Borderlands Source: Page, W. R. (2014, April). [U.S.-Mexico Borderlands showing south Texas-northern Mexico study area (pink-colored area in lower right).]. Retrieved February 25, 2015, from

Standard 2: Mental MapsFocus: Mental map of a walk from my home to Mill Ave. Source: Personal knowledge from living in the area of Tempe.

Standard 3: Spatial AnalysisFocus: The map interprets drug trafficking across the Caribbean through various modes of transportation. The arrows are color coded to go with the modes of transportation, i.e. air, speedboat, mule, cargo, yacht, etc.Soure: E. (2014, May 24). Full circle. Retrieved February 25, 2015, from

Standard 6: Perceptions of Places and RegionsFocus: Forming a view of a certain geographical location involves memories, culture and experience. Source: Smith, J. (2012, March). [Digital image]. Retrieved from

Standard 4: Physical and Human Characteristics of PlacesFocus: The borderlands culture is portrayed as a human characteristic and the Imperial Beach as a physical characteristic of Tijuana. Source: Gibbs, N. (2010, July). [Digital image]. Retrieved from

Standard 8: Characteristics and Distribution of Earth's EcosystemsFocus: Geographically informed individuals need to understand spatial distribution, origins, functions, and maintenance of the different ecosystems. Source: D. (2015, March). [Digital image]. Retrieved from

Standard 7: Physical ProcessesFocus: Vertical cliff face occurs all over Sedona mountains because of physical processes and weak layer of rock.Source: screenshot from Google Maps, of a region of Sedona, AZ.

Standard 9: Population GeographyFocus: This map portrays population clusters across the globe, and how China, India, & Western Europe are highly populated. Source: Harper, W. (n.d.). World Population Clusters [Digital image]. Retrieved from

Standard 10: Culture MosaicsFocus: The culture of the borderlands portrays important beliefs and traditions of the rest of the country. Gorgeous cathedrals and bright traditional clothing are forms of representing culture.

Standard 12: Human Settlement Focus: It is important to understand human settlements as to why the location was picked and its history. Tubac, Arizona started by being occupied by European settlements since 1752.Source: Catalina Inn Hotel, north Tucson, Arizona. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Standard 11: Economic Interdependence Focus: WWII altered the gender of commerce and trade because women were joining the paid workforce as most men left to fight the war.Source: UK, S. (n.d.). The War That Liberated Women. Retrieved March 29, 2015, from

Source: Dioni, A. (2012, September). Catedral de la Asunción en Hermosillo, Sonora. México [Vista frontal de la Catedral de la Asunción de Hermosillo, ubicada frente a la Plaza Zaragoza]. Retrieved from,_Sonora._M%C3%A9xico._02.JPG

Standard 17: Applying Geography to Interpret the Past & Standard 18: Apply Geography to the FutureFocus: It becomes important to recognize patterns of past settlement to then use that information and apply it to the future. Rivers are a main part as to why settlements begin. Source:

Standard 14: Humans Modify the EnvironmentFocus: Cananea, Sonora has one of the largest copper mines. This picture displays the damage done by humans to extract the copper.

Standard 18: Apply Geography to Plan for the FutureFocus:

Standard 15: Environment Effect on HumansFocus: It becomes important for humans to find ways in which to make their current location livable. Before A/C in AZ, houses were built with thick adobe for insulation.

Standard 16: Resources Focus: Among the borderlands many resources can be found, water would be one of the most precious to humans, and as the previous standard mentioned Sonora has a valuable copper mine.

Standard 13: Cooperation and ConflictFocus: Bilateral relationship becomes important in order to combat border security and provide safety for citizens of both countries.Source: Price, B. (2011, October). October 2011 Archives - Brings You... Retrieved from


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