Mutations

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by kingdonke
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Genetics

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Mutations

MUTATIONS

DEFINITIONIs a natural process that changes a DNA sequence. And it is more common that you may think. As a cell copies its DNA before dividing, a typo occurs every 100,000 or so nucleotides. Thats about 120,000 typos each time one of our cells divides.

TYPES OF MUTATIONSGene mutations: The alteration affects the chemical structure of the DNA within the genes.Chromosome mutations: The alteration affects the structure of the chromosomes.Numerical mutations: The alteration affects on the number of chromosomes.

CHEMICAL MUTAGENSMany substances, such as dyes used in industry, pesticides or certain pollutants can cause changes in genes. Tobacco smoke has mutagenic components. The risk of mutation increases if cells are regularly exposed to these mutagens.

PHYSICAL MUTAGENSRadiation can cause damage to genetic material. The most dangerous types are X-rays and radiation from radioactive processes. The rays from the sun can also act as mutagenic agents.

BIOLOGICAL MUTAGENSSome viruses can increase the frequency of genetic mutations because they interfere with genetic material of the cell they are living in.

Chemical mutagens are defined as those compounds that increase the frequency of some types of mutations. They vary in their potency since this term reflects their ability to enter the cell, their reactivity with DNA, their general toxicity, and the likelihood that the type of chemical change they introduce into the DNA will be corrected by a repair system (section IIIC).

DOWN SYNDROMEIs a chromosomal condition that is associated with intellectual disability, a characteristic facial apparance, and weak muscule tone (hypotonia) in infancy.

Veronica Vinueza 4E


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