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GENE MUTATION: The alteration affects the chemical structure of the DNA within genes.CHROMOSOME MUTATIONS: the altertation affects the structure of the chromosomes.NUMERICAL MUTATIONS: the altertaion affects the number of chromosomes

PHYSICAL MUTAGENSRadiation can cause damage to gentic material. The most dangerous types are X-rays and radiation from radioactive processes. The rays from the Sun can also act as mutagenic agents. The atmosphere stops the most dangerous types of radiation but some UV radiation does reach the Earth.

CHEMICAL MUTAGENSMany substances, such as dyes used in industry, pesticides or certain pollutants can cause changes in genes. Tobacco smoke has mutagenic components. The risk of mutation increases if cells are regularly exposed to these mutagens.

BIOLOGICAL MUTAGENSSome viruses can increase the frequency of genetic mutations because they interfere with the genetic material of the cell they are living in.

DEFINITONChange in the structure or amount of genetic information in a gene or chromosome. Mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus or other genetic elements


BIOLOGICAL MUTAGENIs a mutation agent in the from of virus or bacteria which can include mutation in every living organisms.When cell divides, virus will change the genetic material (DNA) composition of the attacked cell i order to damage the cell and tissues Toxin produced by bacteria can also cause disorder or damage on genetic material or certain cell and tissues. Hepatitis, chickenpox, measles, yellow fever, or food poisoning (botulism) may begin from genetical material change induced either by virus or bacteria.


DOWN SYNDROMEIs also know as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is a typically associated with physical growth delays, characteristic facial features and mild to moderate intellectual disability.


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