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by anapovorozniuk
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What is it?



Types and subtypes

Mutations may be bad for the organism, or neutral, or of benefit. Sometimes mutations are fatal for the organism – the protein made by the 'new' DNA does not work at all, and this causes the embryo to die. On the other hand, evolution is moved forward by mutations, when the new version of the protein works better for the organism.

If you ask people what they think about, when you say word "mutation", they will probably say something about superheros. However, mutations aren't epic and wonderful. But what is it exactly? Mutation - any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism. People commonly use the terms "mutant" and mutation" to describe something broken. But mutation is not always bad and usually it has no effect. Mutation also generates new variations that can give an individual a survival advantage. And most often, mutation gives rise to variations that are neither good not bad, just different.

Certain man-made chemicals have been known to cause mutations, in most cases by revising the basic chemical composition of a cell's DNA. Ethyl methanesulfonate, a compound used in laboratory research, affects the way that one of DNA's four component bases behaves chemically, resulting in mutant cells with sequences of DNA different from the parent cell's. Benzopyrene, a component of cigarette smoke, and vinyl chloride, an ingredient in plastics, affect DNA similarly.

Point mutation – a change in one base in the DNA sequence. Substitution – when one or more bases in the sequence is replaced by the same number of bases.Inversion – when a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.Insertion – when a base is added to the sequence.Deletion – when a base is deleted from the sequence.

Mutation and its consequences

Chemical mutations


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