Muslim civilization

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by audreydewoody18
Last updated 6 years ago

Social Studies

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Muslim civilization

Muhammad Biography

Muslim Civilization Project

Sunni/ Shiite Split

Five Pillars of Islam

Muslim Extremism

Religious Statistics

Top Five Islamic Nations


Basic Beliefs

Muslim Cultural Achievments

The Islamic faith centers around six main ideas – the belief in God, or Allah; the belief in angels; the belief in Allah’s revealed books; the belief in Prophets; the Day of Resurrection; and the belief in Al-Qadar. The belief in the Islamic God, Allah, means Muslims worship only Allah who they trust is the Creator and not Jesus or part of a Trinity. Angels are thought to worship and obey Allah’s commands, such as when the angel Gabriel brought the Quran to Muhammad. The Holy Books are believed to be proof of Allah to help humans through life; the Quran is supposedly guaranteed protection from corruption and distortion which is why the majority of Muslims believe it should only be read in the original Arabian text. Muslims believe that the Prophets of Allah include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and Jesus with Muhammad being the last messenger of Allah; it is made clear however that these prophets are human and have no qualities of Allah because that would infringe on the belief in only one God. The Day of Judgment and of Resurrection is thought to be when people will be revived to be judged by Allah based off of their life and heart. The belief in Al- Qadar, or Divine Predestination, means that Allah is the Creator who knows and records everything and His will be accomplished while still giving humans free will.


The Shia, or Shiites, and the Sunni Muslims first fought over who the successor to Muhammad should be. The Shiites believed it should stay in the family with the next successor being Ali Talib who was Muhammad’s son-in-law whereas the Sunni believed it should be whoever was deemed worthy. Eventually the Sunnis chose the first caliph as Abu Bakr although after two earlier caliphs were murdered, Ali Talib was elected as the fourth and served for five year until he was killed in combat against the Sunni. Ali’s son, Hussein, and the Abbasids led a revolt against the present caliph during which Hussein was decapitated making him a very influential martyr for the Shiites. Shiite leaders are called imam’s and the Twelver Shiites believe that the twelfth imam was taken into hiding by Allah and they are waiting for his return; Sunnis think that attributes Godly qualities to the imams however which creates tension between the two Islamic sects.

Shiites are 10-15% of the Muslim population and 80% of the native Persian Gulf population; 23.4% of the world is Muslim whereas only less than 6.5% of the United States is. Allah is in the Quran about 2700 times.

Most extreme or radical Muslims are part of the Kharijite sect. They interpt the word jihad to mean Holy War which supposedly justifies their evangalistic violence.

The five pillars of Islam include prayer, fasting, charity, pilgrimages, and belief in Allah. Muslims are expected to pray five times a day in the direction of Mecca. Fasting is thought of as a way to enrich your relationship with Allah and during the month of Ramadan, Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, and sexual relations in the day. Islamic followers are also expected to give around 2.5% of their income to charity. If possible, Muslims will perform a pilgrimage to Mecca.The profession of faith in Allah includes reciting "There is none worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is the messenger of God."

Because the Quran is often written in Arabic, the Islamic Empire was united by the common language which brought together a variety of different backgrounds. Muslims have invented algebra and managed to calculate the circumference of the Earth; they are eloquent authors who write in calligraphy books such as the Arabian Nights and are well-learned in medicine and astronomy, creating the first astrolabe. The intricate mosques and minarets demonstrate Islamic architectural progress with their domes and columns.

Muhammad grew up with his uncle Abu Talib after his parents passed away when he was a young boy. While in his early twenties, Muhammad started to work for Khadija bint Khawalayd as a merchant whom he later married. As Bedouins settled down for trade, Mecca became more popular and materialistic which caused Muhammad to meditate and reflect in a cave, where Allah revealed himself. An angel Gabriel came to Muhammad to tell him that he was God’s Prophet and spoke in depth to the man over the course of many years. With time, Muhammad came to preach his experiances in Mecca. Leaders in the city abused him and his followers spurring the Muslims to move to Medina, which is called their hegira, but they eventually moved back to Mecca. Muhammad was able to unite the Arabian tribes under one religion while enlarging it; his winning-over of the Meccan political leaders is thought of as one of the Prophet’s biggest achievement.


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