Muhammad Ali Pasha & Viceroy of Egypt

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Muhammad Ali Pasha & Viceroy of Egypt

Muhammad Ali Pasha & Viceroy of Egypt

BackgroundMuhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas’ud ibn Agha (Turkish: Kavalali Mehmed Ali Pasha) was born in Kavala, Greece in 1769. He was the Ottoman commander of the Albanian regiment. Up until 1805, the Ottomans used the Albanian troops to fight the Mameluks in Egypt. After making himself prominent, he was appointed as Sultan Selim III’s viceroy in Egypt. He is credited for modernising Egypt. Muhammad Ali Pasha died on August 2, 1849 in Alexandria, Egypt.

Muhammad Ali Pasha rebelled against the Ottomans due to his discontent with the Sultan. Muhammad Ali was not given the promised reward for the aid he had offered during the Greek War of Independence. Muhammad Ali had high hopes of recieving control over land in Syria, however, he was rewarded Crete. He rebelled and fought for control over Syria.

Reasons for Rebellion


"Often referred to as the founder of modern Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha (c. 1769–1849) was an Ottoman Turkish military leader who ruled Egypt for much of his adult life, amassing such military power that he was able to threaten the rule of the Ottoman Sultan himself." (Encyclopedia of World Biography)

Methods of RebellionAlthough he originally supported the Ottoman sultan by suppressing Greek and Arabian rebellions, Muhammad Ali felt that he and his country were powerful enough to challenge Ottoman rule. His fight for independence spanned over two wars. In the first war against the sultan, from 1831 until 1833, Muhammad Ali managed to gain control of Syria. In the second war, from 1838 until 1841, his military defeated the Ottoman troops at the Battle of Nizip in 1839.

Battle of Nizip (1839)

Political: He eliminated the Mameluks (former ruling oligarchy). In 1841, Muhammad Ali and his family “were granted the hereditary right to rule Egypt and the Sudan,” (Rivlin)Social: He put an end to Egypt’s traditional society: dispossessed the landholding classes, restriced merchants and artisans, neutralized the Beduins, supressed peasant rebellions. He sent educational missions to Europe. Economic: Agricultural land was turned into state land and new crops introduced, which increased revenue. He improved the irrigation system. The government gained more control over the economy. He taxed illiterate peaseants. Religious: He turned the religious class into pensioners of the government. He drove the Wahhabis from the Hejaz.

He built a modern army and fleet based on European standards.

Made by: Jida Akil


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