Moscow

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by Abbbyy
Last updated 6 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Geography

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Moscow

MOSCOW

Map 1.1

Map 1.2

Location: Moscow is the Capital of Russia, in Eastern Europe (see map 1.1). It is situation on the Moskva River in West-Central European Russia.Size:The city of Moscow occupies 2,510 km² of land.Climate/Weather:Moscow has a humid, continental climate; therefore large seasonal temperature differences occur. Summer is from May to September, which is warm (occasionally hot) and humid. Average temperature during this period is 23'C and can reach 30'C during heatwaves. Winter occurs from November to March, which is usually long and cold. Average temperature is -10'C. Snow cover occurs 3 to 5 months on average, each year, during the months from November to April. Average wind speed is low: 2m/second in the city and 6m/sec in open areas. On average, Moscow has 1731 hours of sunshine per year. Topograhpy: The city is built on relatively flat land, 150m above sea level. It is on either side of the Moskva River and is roughly the shape of a oval. The layout of the streets resemble a spiderweb. Streets run outward from the Kremlin, the centre of the city, and other streets are in circles to form rings. (see Map 1.2)

Physical Aspects

Population: 11.98 millionEthnic Groups: Russian (91.65%), Ukranian (1.42%), Tatar (1.38%), Armenian (0.98%), Azeri (0.5%), Jews (0.49%), Others (3.58%) Languages: The official language of Moscow is Russian.

Demographics

Infrastructure:There are 5 main commercial airports in Moscow: Sheremetyevo International Airport (SVO), Domodedovo International Airport (DME), Bykovo Airport (BKA), Ostafyevo International Airport and Vnukovo International Airport (VKO). Sheremetyevo is the main Airport, handling 60% of international flights in and out of Moscow. There are 9 main rail terminals in Moscow: Belorussky, Kazansky, Kiyevsky, Kursky, Leningradsky, Paveletsky, Rizhsky, Savyolovsky and Yaroslavsky. The train system is the the populations prefered mode of transport, especially when travelling from and to Saint Petersburg (Russia's 2nd largest city). There is also the 'Elektrichka", which is an electric rail system that connects the inner city of Moscow to subrbs and satellite towns. There is also an established Metro system mostly built underground. It began in 1935 and currently has 12 lines and 188 stations. It is one of the busiests Metro systems in the world, serving 9 million passengers every day. It is also one of the deepest systems in the world, with Park Pobedy station at 84 metres underground. The are a large number of infrastructure in Moscow established for education. There are 1696 High Schools, 222 Higher Education Institutes (including 60 Universities). There is also 452 Libraries, including the Russian State Library established in 1862 which is the fourth largest librabry in the world.Recreation:Moscow is also considered a 'green' city due to the number of parks and open spaces. There are 96 parks and 18 gardens in Moscow. Therefore are 27m² of park space per person, compared to 6m² in Paris, 7.5m² in London and 8.5m² in New York.The city has 63 sport stadiums, including the Luzhniki Stadium which is the 4th largest in Europe and has hosted many international events, including the 1980 Summer Olympics. There is also 7 horse racing tracks, the largest is the Central Moscow Hippodrome built in 1834. The city is also a centre for art and performing arts/dance. It has a number of notable art museums and galleries including Tretyakov Gallery, founded by Pavel Tretyakov. There are 93 theaters, 132 cinemas and 24 concert halls in Moscow, including the Bolshoi Theatre that showcases ballet and opera performances. There are also two large circuses in Moscow: Moscow State Circus and Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard.Industry/Agriculture:The major industries in Moscow include machine building, metalworking, oil refining, publishing, brewing, filmmaking, and the manufacture of machine tools, precision instruments, building materials, automobiles, trucks, aircraft, chemicals, wood and paper products, textiles, clothing, footwear, and soft drinks.The main agricultural activity that occur in the surrounding areas of Moscow is dairy/ milk processing. Lifestyle:According to Forbes, Moscow is ranked 2nd Costliest City in the world for expats. This is due to the cost of housing as well as the price for average items and services such as $9.95 for an international newspaper, $8.29 for a cup of coffee and $7.59 for a liter of milk. Housing costs in Moscow is relatively high. To purchase a plot of land in the outskirts of the city, on average it costs $4000 per square metre, while it costs $6500-$8000 to purchase a plot of land in more prestigious areas. The average cost to rent an apartment in the inner city is $4,600 per month, and $8000 per month to rent a house. Landmarks: Moscow has many landmarks due to world-famous sites and iconic architecture. These landmarks include: The Moscow Kremlin - the heart of the city that overlooks a number of other iconic landmarks of Moscow, St. Basil's Cathedral - a famous cathedral known for its vibrant colours, patterns and onion-shaped domes, The Moscow Metro - showcased the best of Soviet architecture and design and features marble, mosaics, sculptures and chandeliers.History:Researchers have dated humans settling in the location of Moscow back to the Neolithic Era (10,200 BC), humans were most likely attracted to the area due to the source of fresh water from the Moskva River and the flat topography of the land. In 1325 Moscow became the centre of the Russian orthodox church, influencing the control by government in the area. Moscow expanded through the actions of Ivan III (Ivan the Great) the Grand Prince of Moscow and Ivan IV (Ivan the terrible) - establishing Moscow as the Capital of Russia. During the 1930's Moscow developed rapidly under Stalin's control, who urbanised the city and demolished large parts of the city to construct skycrapers.

Social Aspects

Cathedral

St. Basil's

Metro

Kremlin


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