Migration of Jews to Israel Post WWII (1948-1953)

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Social Studies
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Migration of Jews to Israel Post WWII (1948-1953)

Migration of Jews to Israel Post WWII (1948-1953)

- Means-many Jews were poor, especially those released from interment camps, which made it difficult to migrate-1.5 million diplaced people were put into immigration camps in Britain-Violence and hostility in Palestine*The 6 Day War: - fought with neighbors, Syria and Egypt, on holiest day of year for Jewish people- won by Israel; resulted in tenuous treaty with its neighbors- Immigration officials- many detained in Cyprus while attempting to illegally enter Palestine- Anti-semitism- 1948: Egypt passed a law declaring it illegal to leave the country without a permit; hundreds of Jews were arrested, and often had their property confiscated-Jewish neighborhoods were often bombed-about 14,000 Jewish immigrants were able to leave for Israel- Israel vs Palestine- Palestine existed where the Jewish people's Holyland was; political disputes about the land led to discrimination and a hostile environment before Israel could establish itself as a state- Immigration Camps- so many immigrants were migrating to Israel, that Immigration Camps were set up to house them

Demographic Transition:- converted Israel from being a Stage 2 country to a Stage 3 country ~ Birth rate of Jews was more static than that of the Arabs that were previously occupying Israel ~ Jewish death rate was also much lower than the Arabs ~ low birth & death rates led to a declining NIR (natural increase rate) ~ population net gain still remained high due to the influx of so many immigrants

Interregional Migration of Jews from Europe to Israel * 330,000 + Jews from Eastern and Western Europe* Countries with highest emigration:- Romania (122,712) - Bulgaria (38,061)- Poland (104,208)

INTERREGIONAL MIGRATION:the permanent movement of people from one country to another

- mostly forced migration with refugees- Anti-Semitism and overpopulated cities with diplaced Jews created unsafe, unhealthy living condidions in much of Europe-Jews were progressively pushed out of German society, deprived of academic positions and lost their property -The Nuremberg Laws, passed in 1935 *Deprived Jews of German citizenship and denied marriage or sexual contact between Jews and non-Jews*Jews were denied any voting rights and rights to live their own life*Jews were seen as unequal

Voluntary and Forced Migration

Intervening Obstacles

Voluntary and Forced Migration

PUSH- Anti-semitism/ discrimination: many Jewish communities were bombed; discrimination in the job market- persecution/ exile from mostly nearby Arab nations- overpopulation: thousands of Jews liberated from Nazi internment camps populated cities in clusters*created lack of food, housing, and jobs*forced countries like England to create camps to house them

PULL- Zionism: movement to re-establish and protect a Jewish nation (Israel)- Unity: many Jews were migrating to Israel and developing a sense of community- Asylum: Proclamation of the Establishment of the State of Israel states: "The State of Israel will be open for Jewish immigration and the ingathering of the exiles..."

PUSH & PULL Factors

Ravenstein's Laws:-Most migrants move only a short distance, but all were international in this case- Most migrants are from rural areas, but many Jewish migrants fleed major cities-Long-distance migrants go to one of the great centers of commerce and industry: true, but the large number of migrants created immigration camps, which became cities- Economic factors are the main cause of migration: true for some, but asylum was a bigger factor for these migrants- Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow: true Palestinians and Arabs were emigrating from Israel

Average age of Migrants- A lot older than traditional immigrants- Many of them were capable of skilled labor and highly technical professions- Many people who would not traditionally be inclined to migrate migrated for religious reason.

Israeli Migration Policies-Most nations did not want the displaced Jews after WWII- England controlled Palestine and set quotas and other limitations on how many Jews could enter the country- Eventually under political pressure England allowed open immigration of Jews into Israel - Israel now allows all displaced jews to enter the country.

Ravenstein's Laws and Demographic Transition

Shannon RoycroftRoss KesselmanBridget Fagan


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