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A gene pool is combined genetic information of all of the members in a certain population. The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.

Gene Frequency in a Population - How Does It Change?Non- Random Mating - When an animal in a population chooses it’s mate because it’s the prettiest or the most healthy, it reduces the frequency of some genes and increases the others. The animals that are pretty, for example, peacocks, have similar genes. And if the females only choose them, the offspring of the population only has those genes. The genes from the unpretty peacocks never pass down. This changes the variety of genes and makes ones more frequent than the others.Mutation - With mutations, a new gene or allele is introduced into the gene pool. This causes the frequency of the non-mutated genes, and the mutated genes to change. There is now more variety and the prevalence is not the same.Genetic Drift - If some of a population leaves or gets killed by chance, then the frequency of their genes shrinks. This reduces the variety in the population, because over time, if the gene frequency keeps decreasing, it’ll eventually disappear. This causes another gene to be more frequent than the others, completely changing the gene prevalence of the population.Natural Selection - With natural selection, animals are determined as unfit to the environment, and when they die because they can’t survive. This reduces the frequency of the genes that have been singled out, and increases the frequency of those who help with the animals in their environment.Gene Flow - Gene flow can also greatly affect the frequency of a gene in a population. The migration of an animal from one population to another can affect the gene pool. When the animal that came to the population has their offspring, a new gene would be introduced to the gene pool. It would change the frequency of the already present genes and the new genes that were introduced.

Genetic drift is a random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations. A change in prevalence of a gene in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

The bottleneck effect occurs when a population is reduced for at least one generation, creating a different frequency in the genes that were present in the population beforehand.

Reproductive IsolationAllopatric Speciation - Allopatric Speciation is where populations of the same species are separated from one another. The long separated causes the populations to act and look differently. Sympatric Speciation - Sympatric speciation happens when a species evolves from an old species, but they live in the same geographical space. This also causes the two to act and look different. Behavioral Isolation - Behavioral isolation occurs when two populations can interbreed with each other, but they choose not to because they have different courtship rituals or ways that they reproduce that are different in their behaviors. Temporal Isolation - Temporal isolation happens when two populations reproduce at different times. An animal in one population might reproduce in the spring, while the other could reproduce more towards the winter. They would never cross paths during those times to reproduce together.Geographic Isolation - Geographic isolation is when two populations that can interbreed are separated by a large geographic barrier. Those would include things such as bodies of water, mountains, or canyons.Hybridization - Hybridization is the crossing of two different species to create an animal that has the traits of both. These hybrids have issues reproducing, some can only do so if there is another hybrid, some can’t reproduce at all.


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