Microevolution

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by alisoneberle
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Biology
Grade:
10

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Microevolution

Microevolution

Gene Pool:All the genes of the members of a population.

Genetic Drift:When due to random chance, genes in a population disapear until only one is present.

Bottleneck Effect:When the genes in a gene pool become less varied due to a change in the number of organsisms that are producing offspring.

Non-Random Mating:This is when an organism is likely to mate with another organism with the same genotype. This is done in humans, and in animals when animal breeders are in control of who they mate with. This causes the frequency of certain traits to increase (the ones that are desired by breeders or in the case of human mating chosen by the partner).

Mutation:A change in the genes of an organism due to an alteration in it's DNA. This changes the gene frequency as a whole new type of gene is introduced, whether it becomes more or less frequent depends on how it helps or hinders the organisms ability to survive.

Genetic Drift: The frequency of all genes except one decrease until they are no longer present, and the frequency of the other increases until it is the only one present.

Natural Selection:The process that picks which organisims and traits survive based on their fitness to the environment they are in. For example, in a forrest with black trees, black moths will survive because they can blend in, while white moths will die because they stick out. The frequecny of genes that help organisms survive increases, while the frequency of genes unhelpful or harmful to organisms survival decreases.

Gene Flow:Gene flow occurs when genes from one population are introduced into another population, as caused by immigration and emigration. If there is much emigration in a population, then the genetic variation will decrease, and the opposite will occur in regards to much immigration.

Allopatric Speciation:When groups from the same population are seperated until they can no longer mate together.

Geographic Isolation:When members of a population are seperated from the rest by a geographic barrier such as a mountain or a river. Even if brought back together and able to mate, they would not because they would not recognize the other group as one that they were able to mate with

Sympatric Speciation:When a species develops into two seperate species even though they are not seperated.

Behavioral Isolation:When a population becomes divided because of behavioral changes in some. For example, if half of the birds in a population developed a different song, they would no longer attract mates from the other half, and the two groups would become seperated.

Temporal Isolation: When members of populations mate at different times (i.e. day and night, summer and winter) which causes them to not mate with each other.

Hybridization:When organisms from two different species mate to form a hybrid or a cross of the two animals with traits from both. The offspring that result from hybridization tend to be sterile.


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