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Social Studies
Ancient History

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Time Line



People begin to settle in the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in an area called Mesopotamia. After the people moved into Mesopotamia which had very fertile soil which would make it a lot easier to grow crops. The only downfall of farming in Mesopotamia was that they didn't have as much rainfall which would make it harder to water your crops. The rivers weren't a dependable water source for there crops because they would dry up in the blazing heat.

A group of people called the sumerians begin to settle in southern Mesopatamia. the sumerians settled in to many city states throughout mesopotamia(mostly in the southern area). Each city would surround a temple that was dedicated to a god. Each sumerian city had there own god who would look over the city and take care of it. One of the only thing the sumerians did share was there language but other than that they were constantly fighting. They would fight for water sources and for fertile land. The sumerians got most of there wealth from trade.

Sumerians develop a format of writing based on Pictographs. The writing that the sumerians made was called cuneiform. They used pictographs and other symbols to create this writing. The symbols that they made were used to represent trading goods and livestock. The symbols became stylised and then formed a whole writing form that was calle dcuneiform. Before the sumerians would make there symbols out of clay but later on formed a more sufficinent way of writing it. The earliest texts found were from Uruk and Jamdat nasr. Cuneiform means wedge shaped in greek. Cuneiform was one of the earliest ways of writing.

the Sumerians have established several city states including Ur, Lagash, Kish,Nippur, and Uruk. Ur was one of the most popular cities for the sumerians. Ur had three catogories to sort there people into. At the top were the government officals, soilders, and priests. The next level was laborers, teachers and craftmakers. The last level were slaves that were captured in battle

In the city of Ur the kings and quenns were buried with treasure. the ziggurats were like modern day skyscrapers. Some ziggurats stood up to 70 feet tall. Later on the ziggurats were more than just a place for gods. There were workshops for craftworkers and for priests it was a place to worship. Cities like Ur had different groups. Mostly the richer people had more power.

People were farming in the Middle East. Before the Mesopotamians stared farming they would gather plants and other materials. The weather in Mesopotamia also helped the people because there was very heavy rainfall. One of the main crops they grew was wheat and barley. the early peole did not live in Mesopotamia in this period. They lived by the Nile river which didn't have as fertile land.










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