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by amatsubara
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Social Studies
Ancient History

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6. Brief NotesMesopotamia was made up of many city-states such as Ur, Uruk, Legash, and Babylon. Irrigation was advanced because of the little rain they recieved and the unpredictable flooding of the rivers. The land of Sumer was controlled by many empires including the Sargon of Akkad. The Mesopotamians had advanced technology and invented many things such as the wheel. They had many trade networks with other civilizations. They had specialized workers to make many things. The Hammurabi's Code exemplifies the patriarchy in their soceity. Mesopotamian culture had manu influences on other societies with ideas, technology and social ways to run their soceity.

1. QuoteIf a man marries a wife but does not draw up a formal contract for her, that woman is not a wife. - Hammurabi's Code This quote is significant because it clearly exemplifies the patriarchal society in Mesopotamia. Many laws in the Hammurabi's Code give men the power and authority when a woman is involved with the case.

3. ContributionsCuneiform - This is a form of writing which was used by the Mesopotamians. This was one of the first recorded languages and it provides textual evidence of how the people lived.Arethmetic and Geometry - These were important technological innovations because the use of these made it possible for the Mesopotamians to create complex cities, buildings, and irrigation systems.Hammurabi's Code - This was a legal code which established the laws of Mesopotamia when under Hammurabi's reign. This is important because it provides historians information about their society such as patriarchy and social classes.

4. Personal SummaryMesopotamia was an ancient civilization, that was built by the Euphrates river and the Tigris river, which depended mainly on agriculture. They had many city-states who were constantly fighting for power. Being polytheistic, they worshiped many gods who were associated with nature and agriculture by building them elaborate ziggurats. They were a technically advanced society which had many inventions such as the wheel, plow, sails, and cuneiform. Trade was important for the Mesopotamians and they traded wool, leather, and jewelry for copper, ivory, and pearls from India and Anatolia through the rivers.

1. QuoteBy 3000 B.C., the Sumerians had built a number of cities, each surrounded by fields of barley and wheat. Although these cities shared the same culture, they developed their own governments, each with its own rulers. Each city and the surrounding land it controlled formed a city-state. A city-state functioned much as an independent country does today. - Ch. 2.1This quote briefly describes what city-staes were. This is significant because Mesopotamia consisted of many city-states which were always in conflict with eichother.

At 2:16, this video shows a brief example of the Ziggurats and their gods and why people worshiped them.

Were the women of Mesopotamia accepting of this fact like the Chinese women were?


7. Spice Themes1) They had a patriarchal society where men had most of the authority. 2) Consisted of independent city-states which were always fighting. They also had empires.3) Located between tigris and Euohrates. Had irrigation systems and connections with israelites, Hebrews, and Jews.4) Polytheistic religion with pesimistic view of afterlife. Advanced science and technology along with writing.5) Agricultural surploses supported their agriculture. Taxed though agricultural surpluses and used slaves for labor. They traded with other societies such as India, Anatolia, Egypt, and the Phoenicians.

1. QuoteHumans were nothing but their servants. At any moment, the mighter anger of the gods might strike, sending a fire, a flodd, or an enemy to destroy a city, To keep the gods happy, the Sumerians built impressive ziggurats for them and offered rich sacrifices of animals food and wine. - Chapter 2.1This quotation demonstrates the Mesopotamian culture and its religion. The Mesopotamian culture depended greatly upon their many gods and sacrificed many resources to please them. In return they hoped for good luck in agriculture and warfare.

5. SubheadingsSolving Problems Through Organization - For agriculture, they created many complex irrigation systems to provide their crops with a constant supply of water. For defense, they built mud walls. - They traded necessary goods such as metals and precious goods with other civilizations like India and Anatolia. -They needed organized labor and good leadership for these tasks to be accomplished. Slaves were used often by workers to do much of the physical work. A Religion of Many Gods - They had a polytheistic society where more than one single god was worshiped by the people. - They thought their gods also had human-like emotions so they tried very hard to please them. Failiures in agricultre was thought to be in result of angered gods. - The Sumerians had a very pesimistic view of their afterlife. They believed that people of all social ranks (including Gods) had to live in a gloomy dark "land of no return" andeat mud for the rest of their time. Sumerican Science and Technology - Cuneiform was the written language used by the Mesopotamians. There are remains of it on clay tablets which are still being discovered. It is one of the first written languages discovered. - Archetectual and mathematical discoveries made by the Mesopotamians allowerd them to build complex archetectual systems and make measurements. - They made new inventions such as the wheel, plow and sail. They also knew how to use bronze.

A ziggurat built to worship gods

An ancient clay tablet with cuneiform written on it

Different priests worship different gods - polytheism


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