Meiosis Lab

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by greengal1515
Last updated 4 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Genetics
Grade:
11

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Meiosis Lab

Meiosis LabGroup: Brittany Rolfe Tanner Ramos, Jake Rooney

How are mitosis and meiosis fundamentally similar? and different?

Mitosis and meiosis are fundamentally similar because both processes go through interphase(DNA is replicated), prophase (nuclear membrane breaks down), metaphase (lining up of genetic material into center of cell), anaphase (separation of genetic material into two groups), telophase (reformation of nuclear envelope) and cytokinesis(cytoplasm splitting) at least once resulting in the production of daughter cells from a parent cell. Mitosis and meiosis are different because meiosis goes through "Pmatc" twice with some distinct differences. In interphase of meiosis, duplicated chromosomes join together into a group of four sister chromatids held together by cohesin proteins. In prophase 1 of meiosis, synapsis occurs where homologous chromosomes pair up forming a tetrad. These homologous chromosomes swap segments of DNA allowing genetic variation. In anaphase 1, the homologous chromosomes are separated by the spindle and then in anaphase 2 the sister chromatids split. The result of meiosis leads to the creation of four non-identical haploid daughter cells instead of two genetically identical somatic diploid daughter cells produced in mitosis.

Crossing over insures that when a new organism is made they get certain sets from a maternal, and a paternal chromosome allowing us to have more variation, and diversity from the last generation. Essentially keeping us from being the same organism over and over and over again. While random fertilization tells us that all genes, alleles have an equal likelihood of making it to the final stages of reproduction all have a chance to be present. independent assortment tells us that because genes are sorted separately in most cases unless they are linked gives them the ability to be mixed and rearranged creating more diversity like if you had hair eye and nose shape linked for everyone you would only either be big nose, blond, and green eyed, or blue eyed small nose, and brunette. Which makes two options with independent assortment that would make it 9 options. nondisjunction is just a cellular mistake that if you're a plant can help but in animal cells is potentially self destructive. Essentially all of these mechanisms create diversity in genetics and allowing for evolution.

How do the mechanisms of cell replication affect genetic diversity and evolution?

What happens if a homologous pair of chromosomes fails to separate, and how might this contribute to genetic disorders such as Down Syndrome and Cri Du Chat syndrome?

When a homologous pair of chromosome fail to separate, it usually either leads to a mutation in the offspring or the failure to properly form another being that can live to maturity. This malfunction is called a nondisjunction, or the failure to separate the correct way. Some mutations such a down syndrome or Cri Du Chat can be a result of this occurrence. Down syndrome is when a there is an extra chromosome for chromosome number 21. Although this little chromosome may be small, it can have a huge impact on the individual. Cri Du Chat (cat’s cry) is when part of chromosome 5 is missing. Some individuals with this disorder do not live to maturity, others live with learning disabilities, delayed development and heart defects. This mutation is also due to a chromosomes failing to separate when the division process happens. When a chromosome doesn’t have enough information or has too much, it can lead to disorders such as these. Nondisjunction is one of the main leading causes of these chromosomal disorders.

Variable TableIndependent Variable- the amount of recombinant spores and nonrecombinant spores.Dependent Variable- the frequency of recombinance.Constants- using the same species of fungi, counting method, same total throughout the classroom.Control- None.

Research Question:How do Sordaria Fimicola produce genetically different offspring?


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