Low Incidence Disabilities

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Low Incidence Disabilities

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-brought on by mother's use of alcohol during pregnancy.-FAS children grow less quickly-they have facial abnormalities and central nervous system problems; mental retardation.-Characteristics of FAS are:-small eyes with droopy lids-short upturned nose-flat cheeks-small jaw-thin upper lip-hyperactivity-delayed gross motor development (crawling, rolling, sitting up)-delayed fine motor development (grasping items and changing hands with items-impaired language development-learning disabilites-impulsive, distracability, poor judgement and memory.Accommodations & Modifications:-obtain students attention before giving instruction (clear, concise, one step at a time, simple)-have an aid present for the student to ensure they are aware of the lesson and directions.-use visuals for communication, instuction and scheduling.-be consistent with skill delivery (sing song has been known to help the child retain information)-modify assignments and test-increase physical activity and movement in the classroom to help with gross motor and fine motor planning-child may recieve OT and PT, try to use tools the therapists use to help their motor planning and keep it consistent across all environments-preferential seating (aviod high distractability areas)

Charge Syndrome-CHARGE stands for coloboma, heart defect, atresia choanae (also known as choanal atresia), retarded growth and development, genital abnormality, and ear abnormality.-CHARGE syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in 8,500 to 10,000 individuals.-CHARGE syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant gene.http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/charge-syndrome-some of the major features and conditions of CHARGE are as follows: -colomoba of the iris, retina, and other eye features (casues vision loss)-crainial nerve abnormality: decreased sense of smell, swallowing difficulites and facial palsy.-outer, middle, and inner ear malformations that cause hearing loss and balance issues.(infections, fluid in ears and tubes throughout childhood)-major heart defects, especially at birth-clift lip/palate-kidney abnormalities-gential abnormalities( lack of puberty becuase there is not hormone intervention)-growth deficiency-facial features: square face, prominent foregead, large eyes with droopy lids, prominent nasal bridge (flat), small mouth.Accommodations & Modifications-communication through simple gestures or signs, materials in large print or Braille, PECs system.-preferential seating in classroom-frequent sensroy breaks and access to sensory materials.-able to sit on a soft pillow or cushion on floor and on desk chair-low lighting in classroom-aid to asssit in classroom -student can have access to who they want to work and be able to make choices that work best for them.--extra time-oral test taking

A low incidence disability is a severe disabiling condition that occurs at a rate of less than 1% of the students enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade. The disabilities are ususally caused by genetics, biological factors that cause brian damage, chromosomal abnormalities and preganacy complications, which you can see in the three syndromes above. You can also see that no matter what the syndrome, the child reguires many of the same classroom accommodations. It is important to remember to follow the Individualized Education Plan or 504 plan. This will ensure that the child is recieving the best possible education and that their special classroom needs are being met. The teacher should also try to determine what the child's abilities are and work through those to overcome the disabilites.

Low IncidenceDisabilites

Usher Syndrome-Usher syndrome effects hearing and vision.-Major symptoms include, hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa which casues night-blindness and peripheral vison loss. -As the retina degenergates, the individual can only see through "tunnel vsion" or straight ahead.-Usher syndrome is inherited autosomal recessive trait.-Type 1: Children profoundly deaf at birth and have severe balance problems. Many of these children obtain little or no benefit from hearing aids.Vision problems most often begin with difficulty seeing at night, but tend to progress rapidly until the person is completely blind.-Type 2: Children are born with moderate to severe hearing loss and normal balance. Although the severity of hearing loss varies, most of these children can benefit from hearing aids and can communicate orally. The vision problems in type 2 Usher syndrome tend to progress more slowly than those in type 1, with the onset of RP often not apparent until the teens.-Type 3:Children have normal hearing at birth. Although most children with the disorder have normal to near-normal balance, some may develop balance problems later on. Hearing and sight worsen over time, but the rate at which they decline can vary from person to person, even within the same family. A person may develop hearing loss by the teens, and he or she will usually require hearing aids by mid- to late adulthood. Night blindness usually begins sometime during puberty. Blind spots appear by the late teens to early adulthood, and, by mid-adulthood, the person is usually legally blind.http://www.medicinenet.com/usher_syndrome/page3.htmAccommodations & Modifications:-assistive technology (speech-to-text/text-to-speech, word prediction software)-large print materials or materials in Braille-audio books-oral tests-preferential seating with materials at eaily located places-an aid to assist in classroom transitions-extra time with tests and homework-auditory appropriate environment (avoid loud places, etc)


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