Julius Caesar

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Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar

Capture By PiratesWhile Caesar was traveling, he was kidnapped by pirates. Due to daring stunts, he convinced his captors to raise his ransom. He organized a naval group to attack them, they were captured and executed. In 68 or 69 BC, after returning to Rome, he was elected quaestor. Julius Caesar potrayed his courage and quick thinking, these characteristics would help him later in his life.

Began Career in PoliticsAfter returning to Rome, he began his career in politics as a prosecuting advocate. In 68 or 69 BC, he was elected quaestor. He further expanded to serve in several other key government positions under Pompey. This made him a high ranked offical in Rome's government.

CleopatraAfter Caesar left Alexandria, having established Cleopatra as a client ruler in alliance with Rome; he left three legions under the command of Rufio, as legate, in support of her rule. Either immediately before or soon after he left Egypt, Cleopatra had a son, whom she named Caesarion, claiming that he was the son of Caesar.

Caesar Fights PompeyWhile Caesar was leading a legion of 21,000 men, he led his legions to Spain, to prevent Pompey's forces from joining him in the East; he allegedly declared, “I am off to meet an army without a leader; when I return, I shall meet a leader without an army.” After a little time, he fought Pompey's army, that was though to have an estimated 46,000 men, while Caesar only had 21,000 men. But due to Caesar's smart battlefield strategics, he was able to win the battle.

His Life

Helped The Republic

Getting Rid of the GaulsIn 57 BC, Caesar defeated a confederation of Belgic tribes in northwest Gaul and also received the surrender of the maritime tribes of Normandy and Brittany. Others fled across the channel to Britain. When the tribes of Armorica on the Breton peninsula rebelled the following year, they, too, were defeated, the tribal leaders killed and the survivors sold into slavery. Again, assistance had been summoned from Britain.Realizing that "in almost all the Gallic campaigns the Gauls had received reinforcements from the Britons," Caesar now prepared to invade and reconnoiter that troublesome isle.

CalendarJulius Caesar wasn’t just known for his heroic acts on the battlefield, he also was the one who edited the calendar that some people still use today. During the time he was creating the perfect calendar, he spent countless hours working on the calendar. But, in order to create a more standardized calendar, Julius Caesar consulted with an Alexandrian astronomer named Sosigenes and created a more regulated civil calendar based entirely on the Earth's revolutions around the sun. This civil calendar consisted of 365 days, 12 months, and a leap year that occurred every four years. The Roman Calendar however, consisted of only 355 days and 12 months. Julius Caesar had to add ten days to the previous Roman Calendar. But, the Julian Calendar wasn’t perfect, every 128 days, he would run into a problem, which meant that every 128 years the tropical year shifts one day backwards with respect to the calendar. Nowadays, The Gregorian Calendar has become the primary calendar used today, but some people and churches tend to use the Julian Calendar.

Julius Caesar's constitutional frameworkDuring Caesar’s early career, he had come to see how unorganized and dysfunctional the Roman Empire had become, the central government had become powerless, the provinces had been transformed into independent principalities under the absolute control of their governors, and the army had replaced the constitution as the means of accomplishing political goals. Political corruption had spiraled out of control. Caesar created a new constitution, which was intended to accomplish three separated goals, to suppress all armed resistance out in the provinces. Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome. Finally, he wanted to bring together the entire Republic into a single unit. The first goal was completed after the victory on Pompey. He would accomplish the other two goals by disrupting his governments power, and he organized serval other reforms to weaken Rome's other political institutions.

Hurt the republic

TaxesJulius Caesar wasn’t always the hero of the Roman Empire. He put a pretty hefty tax on the citizens of Rome. He did this to control the other wealthy and powerful families that could threaten his leadership. He wanted them as close to Rome as possible where he was able to know there comings and goings. It also prevented them to conspire and build private armies.

Ended the RepublicJulius Caesar contributed to the fall of the Roman republic in many ways, but there were two very serious ways. Starting with the first way, While Caesar was still holding onto his command, members of the senate wanted to prosecute him and not allow him to gain power over the military. At this point, Caesar began the civil war that would range across the Mediterranean for the next four years, from Spain to North Africa to Greece to Egypt. Although Caesar stopped fighting on 45BC, the war didn’t finish until 30BC. The second and last reason why Caesar contributed to the war was what he did after the war. He was declared dictator for life, making him one of the most important figures in Roman history. He also did other unfamiliar things that challenged traditional Republican political culture, like putting his own face on coins while still alive.

DictatorAfter Julius Caesar had become Dictator for life, he basically transformed Rome from a republic to a dictatorship. This will lead to multiple problems that will start to occur during the time Caesar was serving as dictator. He controlled the Senate, unemployment would drastically drop, and dept. starts to rise. Later, Caesar will cut the grain rations in half, limiting the number of receivers to 150,000 when 320,000 had been collecting them. Caesar’s impact on the city of Rome continued even after his death when, in his will, he stipulated that his villa, the gardens surrounding it, and his art gallery all be made public

PoorJulius Caesar took a lot of interest in the poor. He would do many kind and generous things that made the poor as equal as any other citizen. First of all, he entertained them by giving them elaborate games. Secondly, He gave them work, by commissioning building projects and supplying the games. Thirdly, He gave them jobs in his armies. And lastly, He genuinely took interest in them. He grew up in a poor district and knew many of poor people by name.

SenateDuring the time Julius was dictator, he made new reforms, and some were good, while some were very bad. But specifically, he turned the senate into his own puppet. The people of the senate however, felt that Caesar was gaining too much power, and was going to soon abolish the senate entirely to rule absolutely as a king. But on March 15, 44 BCE, Caesar was assassinated by the senators in the portico of the basilica of Pompey the Great.


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