Julius Caesar

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Historical biographies
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Julius Caesar

While it has long been disputed, it's estimated that I was born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 BC. While I hailed from Roman aristocrats, his family was far from rich. When I was 16 my father, Gaius Caesar, died. I remained close to my mother, Aurelia. The Rome of my youth was unstable. An element of disorder ruled the Republic, which had discredited its nobility and seemed unable to handle its considerable size and influence. At around the time of my father's death, I made a concerted effort to side with the country's nobility. My marriage to Cornelia, the daughter of a noble, had drawn the ire of Rome's dictator, Sulla, who ordered the me to divorce my wife or risk losing my property. I refused and found escape in the military, serving first in the province of Asia and then in Cilicia.Following the death of Sulla, I returned to Rome to begin my career in politics as a prosecuting advocate. I relocated temporarily to Rhodes to study philosophy, but during my travels there, I was kidnapped by pirates. In a daring display of my negotiation and counter-insurgency tactics, I convinced my captors to raise my ransom. I then organized a naval force to attack them. The pirates were captured and executed. My stature was enhanced further in 74 BC when I put together a private army and combated Mithradates VI Eupator, king of Pontus, who had declared war on Rome. When I returned to Rome I began to work with Pompey, a former lieutenant under Sully, who'd switched sides following the dictator's death. Not long after, in 68 or 69 BC, I was elected quaestor (a base political office) and then went to serve in several other key government positions under Pompey. My personal life meanwhile offered up tragedy when my wife, Cornelia, passed away in 69 BC. Two years later I remarried, taking Pompeia, a distant relative of Pompey, as my wife. My marriage lasted just a few years, and in 62 BC we divorced. My political ascendency, however, continued. In 61-60 BC I served as governor of the Roman province of Spain. I also continued my close alliance with Pompey, which enabled me to get elected as consul, a powerful government position, in 59 BC. Over the years Pompey and Crassus had come to be intense rivals. But once again I displayed my abilities as a negotiator, earning the trust of both men and convincing them they'd be better suited as allies instead of enemies.This partnership among the three men came to be known as the First Triumvirate. For me, this political alliance and the power it gave me was the perfect springboard to greater domination. An early controversial move came when I tried to pay off Pompey's soldiers by granting them public lands. While initially unpopular, I hired a collection of Pompey's soldiers to stage a riot. In the midst of all the chaos, I got my way. Not long after, I secured the governorship of Gaul (now France and Belgium), allowing me to build a bigger military and begin the kind of campaigns that would cement my status as one of Rome's all-time great leaders. Between 58 and 50 BC, I conquered the rest of Gaul, up to the river Rhine. As I expanded my reach, I also showed my ruthlessness with my enemies. In one instance I waited until my opponents' water supply had gone dry, and then I ordered the hands of all the remaining survivors be cut off. Even while I conquered Gaul, I was mindful of the political scene back home, and I hired key political agents to act on my behalf in Rome. But Pompey, who grew envious of his political partner's power and prestige, did not meet my growing stature with enthusiasm. Meanwhile, Crassus still had never completely overcome his disdain for Pompey. The three leaders patched things up temporarily in 56 BC at a conference in Luca that cemented my existing territorial rule for another five years, and granted Crassus a five-year term in Syria and Pompey a five-year term in Spain. Three years later, however, Crassus was killed in a battle in Syria. Around this time Pompey revisited his old concerns about Caesar.The DictatorThrough a series of events, I eventually went to war against Pompey, leading troops across the river Rubicon on January 10-11, 49 BC. With Pompey further aligning himself with nobility, and the nobility increasingly seeing me as a national threat, civil war proved to be inevitable. But Pompey and his troops were no a match for me and my military campaign. By the end of 48 BC, I had pushed my enemies out of Italy and pursued Pompey into Egypt, where he was eventually killed. There, Caesar aligned himself with Cleopatra, with whom I had a son, Caesarion. Upon my return to Rome, I was made dictator for life and hailed as the Father of my Country. For me and my countrymen, my rule proved instrumental in reforming Rome.I would serve just a year's term before my assassination, but in that short period I greatly transformed the empire. I relieved debt and reformed the Senate by increasing its size and opening it up so that it better represented Romans as a whole.My reforms greatly enhanced my standing with Rome's lower and middle-class populations. But my popularity with the Senate was another matter. Envy and concern over my increasing power led to anger and envy among a number of politicians who saw in me as an aspiring king. History had shown that Romans had no desire for monarchical rule. Legend had it that by the time I came to power it had been five centuries since they'd last allowed a king to rule them. My wish to include my former Roman enemies in the government helped spell his downfall. Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus were both former enemies who'd joined the Senate. Together, the two of them led the assassination of Caesar on the Ides of March (the 15th), 44 BC.It's not altogether clear whether I knew ahead of time of the plot to kill me. What was clear, though, was that the conspirators, who dubbed themselves "the liberators," needed to act fast. By all accounts I had plans to leave Rome on March 18 for a military campaign in what is now modern-day Iraq. There I hoped to avenge the losses suffered by Crassus. Brutus' involvement in the killing packed the most complicated backstory. He had originally sided with Pompey during Rome's earlier civil war, but then had been encouraged to join the government after my victory. His mother, Servilia, was also one of my lovers. Following my death, a power struggle ensued in Rome, leading to the end of the Roman Republic. A mob of lower and middle-class Romans gathered at my funeral, with the angry crowd attacking the homes of Cassius and Brutus. I quickly became a martyr in the new Roman Empire, and just two years after my death I became the first Roman figure to be deified. The Senate also gave me the title "The Divine Julius." Playing on the late ruler's popularity, my great-grandnephew, Gaius Octavian, assembled an army to fight back the military troops defending Cassius and Brutus. His victory over my assassins allowed Octavian, who would assume the name Augustus, to take power in 27 BC and become the first Roman emperor.

Accomplishments

I am known to have never lost ever a single war. My notable conquests that are worth mentioning include the capture of Gaul that extended the geographical boundaries of Rome to the Atlantic Ocean. The Roman invasion of Britain in 55 B.C. was also one of the major achievements of my notabl career.I was a successful statesman and amended several laws for the wellbeing of the general public. I also brought about a permanent law against extortion and many other social evils that were prevalent in the society in my days.I took several measures to centralize the bureaucracy of the Roman Republic.I was also a historian and a wonderful orator. I authored several comprehensive journals, providing all the details of my military campaigns, in volumes named as Commentaries.I was given the title of Flamen Dialis and I was chosen to be the high priest of Jupiter. I was the one who determined the calendar and suggested the science behind it. HAHAHAHAI have produced Acta Diurna, the first newspaper that was posted on a forum to allow the public to know about the actions and functioning of the Assembly and the Senate. IIIIII AAAAMMMAWESOME!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!HAHAHAHAHAHAHAHAHA

Summary of my Life

Allegedly the descendent of Trojan prince Aeneas, my auspicious birth c. July 12 or 13, 100 B.C., marked the beginning of a new chapter in Roman history. By 31, I had fought in several wars and become involved in Roman politics. After several alliances, I became dictator of the Roman Empire. This led to a senatorial coup, and my eventual assassination, on the Ides of March.

Citations

Sources Citedhttp://ancienthistory.about.com/od/caesarstudyguide/tp/070909CaesarAccomlpishments.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Caesar

JuliusCeasarBy Samuel Aguirre

Biography

Juluis Ceaser


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