John Collier

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by marr4955
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John Collier

-John Collier lived from 1884-1968-Was a non-native Social reformer in favor of Indian Affairs-His career in social reformation and politics spanned through the progressive era and the New Deal.-Commissioner of Indian Affairs during FDR's Presidency (1933-1945)

Wheeler-Howard Act

Goals as Commissioner of Indian Affairs:1. Progressive reform in how the United States viewed the Native Americans. 2. Balance between needs of Indians and individuals while preserving traditional values.3. Wanted the government to help produce a form of economy for Indian groups.4. Wanted natives and non-natives to get along based on mutual gain.

-Major step in Collier's administration, passed in 1934.-In favor of Indians maintaing their tribal identity-Promoted flexibility of natives in dealing with Urban, Industrial America.-Major Provisions of the Act include: 1. No land on any kind of Indian reservation should in the future be allotted to any Indian.2. Two million dollars was authorized to provide land for landless Indians annually.3. Number of indians within the interior of the range was regulated.5. Ten million dollars authorized annual in support of economic development among the tribes who incorporated themselves.6. $250,000 was made available annually for children who sought trade or vocational schools8. Set up and gave tribes the power of self-governing under a constitution of their own.10. Redefines what it meant to be an Indian.

Bibliography“The Social Philosophy of John Collier” by Kunitz, Stephen J. University of Rochester.John Collier: Architect of Sovereignty or Assimilation?” Rusco, E.R. American Indian Quarterly. Database-Humanities Source“A New Deal for Native Art: Indian Arts and Federal Policy, 1933-1945.” McLerran, Jennifer. University of Arizona Press, 2009.

Samuel Marren



Accomplishments-Defeated the Bursum Bill-Reversed Past History of Indian Relations based on Dawes Act-Worked with a group still in existence today - The Association on American Indian Affairs-Protected Native Lands-Promoted autonomy-Pushed for Self-Governing Communities-Aided Indian Boarding Schools and Vocational Schools

Architect of Sovereignty-Stopped Idea of total Assimilation, or complete sovereignty but rather a combination of the two.-Collier thought, for Indians to maintain identity they needed protection of land.


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