Japanese Internment Camps

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Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
World War II
Grade:
8

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Japanese Internment Camps

JAPANESE INTERNMENT CAMPS

The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought the war to an end, and the Japanese Americans were free to go.

President Roosevelt lifted the Civilian Exclusion Order and the government announced that the camps would be closing within a year.

It was leaving day for the Japanese Americans.

President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 and then the Civilian Exclusion Order Number 27 was released and it stated that the Japanese Americans were unwelcome.

December 7, 1941

1942

1944

1948

Evacuation Claims Act provided partial payment for lost or destroyed property.

1988

Each surviving prisoner recived 20,000 dollars for their hardship throughout the war.

May 9, 1942

1945

Japanese played sports to keep themselves preoccupied while in the internment camps.

P 1The Japanese Americans living in the United States have dealt with a long history of bigotry. In 1790, the Federal Naturalization Law stated that white immigrants were permitted to become naturalized citizens. Many years later, in 1906, the San Francisco School Board wanted Japanese Americans to go to an oriental school. Less than ten years, in 1913, the Californian Alien Land Law didn’t allow the right for anyone who wasn’t a Unites States citizen to own land (Carnes 94). On December 7, 1941, the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor (Carnes 92). Shortly after, Americans started to believe that the Japanese living in the United States were somehow involved with the bombing. As a result, the government began to remove Japanese Americans from the West Coast. On February 19, 1942, President Roosevelt announced the Executive Order 9066. It stated that they were going to establish military areas on the West Coast. In just two months, Civilian Exclusion Order #27 stated that the Japanese Americans were unwelcome. Only given a month, the Japanese Americans were to sell most of their belongings, or have their belongings be stolen during the period of being gone. On May 9, 1942, it was leaving day (Carnes 96). They were allowed to take what they could carry and they were taken to a destination in their neighborhood. From there, they would be taken to an internment camp (Jones). This was an end to normal everyday life for the Japanese Americans living in the West Coast.

P 5Life after the internment camps for the Japanese Americans wasn’t always the same. In 1944, the Public Proclamation Number 21 ended imprisonment of Japanese American citizens. When they returned to their neighborhoods, it was a difficult time for many. Some neighborhoods were welcoming, while some were not. As time went on, discrimination went along with it (Jones). In 1947, all Japanese American draft resisters received Presidential Pardon. A year later, Evacuation Claims Act provided partial repayment for the lost and destroyed property. As hatred went on for over ten years, President General Ford revoked the Executive Order 9066 and apologized to the Japanese Americans. Finally, in 1988 each surviving internee received 20,000 as a gift for their hardship during World War II (Carnes 100). Although life after the war was still hard, the Japanese Americans still stood strong as they came back to society.

P 4Although the internment camps were unnecessary, the Japanese Americans found ways to keep themselves entertained. They set up social clubs, choirs, and sports teams (Carnes 99). They also formed Boy Scout groups and taught religion. Also, the Japanese Americans found ways to make money. Physicians, dentists, and other professionals were paid the most, but they were only paid nineteen dollars a month. Agriculture workers were paid the second highest, and they were paid twelve dollars a month. Unskilled labor workers were paid the lowest, with only receiving eight dollars a month. Each camp functioned as a school district and they taught grades first through twelfth. Caucasians were normally the teachers and educators, but sometimes Japanese were teachers and administrators. The downside was that there was a lack of materials and books. They even had a typewriting class without a typewriter (Jones). The hard work and activities that were done in the camps really helped them live a normal life.

P 3The Japanese Americans were forced to leave their everyday lives due to the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The Japanese were to pack whatever they could carry, then they were taken to the Tanforan Racetrack. Their living space was a 9 by 20 foot horse stall. One horse stall held one family. In the horse stall, manure littered the floor, and horse hair and dirt stained the walls. The stalls had no ceilings, and basically no privacy. The Japanese in the internment camps had to sleep on mattresses made of hay. The Americans provided the Japanese Americans with rough plank tables and benches (Carnes 97). After a while, the Japanese Americans were taken to another internment camp that was located in the desert. This camp had a 20 by 24 feet living space for each family. The space provided for the Japanese Americans were cleaner, and they even had stoves in the rooms. The Americans who ran the camp gave the Japanese Americans no tables or chairs. Unlike the other camp that had one bathroom, this camp had six, but there were no doors for the bathrooms (Carnes 98). All of the camps were blazing hot in the summer and below freezing in the winter (Carnes 99). The Japanese always had to stand in lines for their mail, checks, meals, showers, laundry, toilets, clinic services and movies (Jones). Each camp had barbed wired fences to keep the Japanese from escaping. Anyone who went near the fence was shot with no hesitation by the guards (Carnes 99). Despite the dusty living area and revolting smells, the Japanese Americans created events to keep them busy, and to have fun.

P 2The Japanese Americans ate whatever they were given in order to be as healthy as they could. When they first arrived to Tanforan, they were fed moldy bread, discolored cold cuts, and over boiled chard (Carnes 97). Most of the diet throughout the camps they went to was something they would never eat. They were fed meat, but it was normally the internal organs of the animal. The meat included beef brains, kidneys, liver, tongue, chitterlings, and gizzard (Carnes 99). They were also given rice, macaroni, and potatoes to go along with their. Most of the food served was sandy. Some people got used to the sandy feeling in their mouths (Jones). The food that was served to the Japanese Americans were edible, but were not familiar to the Japanese.

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The attack on Pearl Harbor.

The Japanese ate foods they wern't used to. They also all ate together

The Japanese waited in long lines. They were also imprisoned by fences.

The Japanese all stayed in a living space with their family.

Mixture of old documentaries and propoganda of internment camps and clips during WWII


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