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by Morgan2394
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The amino acid sequence of insulin was discovered by biochemist Frederick Sanger. He used bovine insulin to practice the sequencing bacuase it was accessible in large quantities in purified form. The entire process took just under three years, and the process Sanger devloped was applied to sequencing other proteins, including human insulin.

References1. Gordon Still, J. (2002), Development of oral insulin: progress and current status. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 18: S29–S37. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2072. T. Ye, S. Yan, Y. Hu, L. Ding & W. Wu (2013). Synthesis and volume phase transition of concanavalin A-based glucose-responsive nanogels. Polym. Chem., 2014, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C3PY00778B3. Pennington, Tess. Medical Breakthrough: Plant Based Insulin. Ready Nutrition. September 2010. Web. 05 Nov. 2013. 4. Irving, J. (1983). Human Insulin from Recombinant DNA Technology Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science), 219(4585), 200-230.5.Tibaldi, J. (2012). Evolution of Insulin Developpement: Focus on Key Parameters, 29(7), 590-6196.Stretten, A. (2002) The first sequence. Fred Sanger and insulin. Genetics 162 7. Deepinder, B. The History of Insulin.





Frederick Banting and Charles Best conducted a series of experiments which showed that removing the pancreas from dogs made them diabetic.

A diabetic teenager in a Toronto hospital named Leonard Thompson became the first person to receive an injection of insulin. He improved dramatically, and the news about insulin spread around the world like wildfire.

A Chain

B Chain

Researchers recently created a plant-based insulin. Canadian researchers inserted the insulin gene into safflower plants so that the seed would produce insulin. Once the plant produces seeds they extract the oil from them and refine it to produce insulin called SBS-100. Although still in the testing phase it is believed that this insulin is just as effective as traditional insulin and that the production method is capable of meeting worldwide demand.

Another huge development that is currently in motion is a plant protein derived polymer nanogel that will eliminate the need to check glucose levels or inject insulin. This nanogel would be introduced into the body and as glucose levels changed the volume of nanogels would also change accordingly. Insulin is released from these nanogels in proportion to how many are present allowing for self regulating insulin treatment.

Scientists from California Company Grenetech Inc. successfully create synthesized insulin using recombinant DNA technology to form a substance identical to pancreatic insulin.

Insulin using recombinant DNA tecnology.1. The A and B side chains are created in Escherichia coli . 2. A and B chains are joined biochemically using a C peptide.3. C peptide is then removed to join the A and B chains using disulfide bonds; leaving a C terminus on the B chain.


Eli Lily & Co. create synthesized insulin for human use.Humulin R (short acting insulin analogue) and Humulin N (intermediate working insulin analogue)

A chain: 21 base pair amino acidB chain: 30 base pair amino acidC chain: cleavage of the polypeptide proinsulin (31 b.p amino acid)C Terminus: Transforms insulin hexamers to a form that is absorbable by the human body.



The amino acid sequnece of each chain was determined by separating the A and B chains using performic oxidation and partial acid hydrolysis, then further cleaving them with proteases. The fragments were then separated using various chromotography methods, so that the identity of the amino acids could be determined.

Andree-Anne Marks, Ian Wallace, Johnathan Linihan, Morgan Stephenson




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