Insulin Receptor

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by quincyhuang
Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Cell Biology

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Insulin Receptor

Functions: Pathways that result from the insulin receptor are responsible for functions relating to cell growth, cell survival, cell division, gene expression, and the synthesis of lipids, proteins, and glycogen. It also provides the vesicle that allows glucose to enter the cell. Insulin receptors also maintain glucose levels in the cell. People with diabetes either do not produce enough insulin, or the insulin is not utilized effectively by the insulin receptors.

Insulin Receptor

Basics of Signal Transduction Pathway:Insulin is the ligand in the signal transduction pathway. It is produced by the pancreas and secreted into the blood stream by beta-cells. The insulin receptor is embedded in the cell membrane. When insulin binds to the active site, the insulin receptor changes shape and the tyrosine kinase autophosphorylates. In the MAP kinase signaling pathway, the activated Ras activates RAF kinase. MEK is activated by the phosphorylation of RAF. The MAPK is then activated, which results in the transcription of a gene.

Overview:Insulin controls lipid and glucose metabolism and activates the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IR). When IR is activated it phosphorylates and attracts adapter proteins such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS). When the IRS is phosphorylated it opens up binding sites for other substrates such as PI3K, which activates proteins that regulate metabolism and autophagy. The other main pathway uses MAPK, and causes gene expression, cell growth, and cell devision.


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