Infectious Diseases

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by OliverKyleLauren
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Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases-Oliver Kuehm, Kyle MacKinnon, and Lauren Fenez

Infectious Diseases - Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, etc.). Infectious diseases can be passed from human to human, directly or indirectly, through contact, exchange in fluids, exposure, and from the environment. Infectious diseases are an invasion of a host organism by a foreign body, which are generally microorganisms. Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases are called pathogens. An infectious disease is deemed contagious if it is easily transmitted from person to person. For a pathogen to infect a host body, it must disrupt a vital body process or stimulate a defensive reaction from the body's immune system. The defensive reaction to the pathogen can cause more damage than the actual infectious disease itself (fever, flu, sickness, inflammation, and other damaging symptoms). Infectious diseases require an agent or a mode of transfer (vector).

Infectious Diseases are a biological hazard

Worst affected areas The worst affected areas are usually in countries with high populations because diseases have the opportunity to spread quickly. Some of these places include: India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam and Pakistan. The level of severity varies depends on many factors such as: sanitation, population and the countries state of nutrition.

TodayChlorea- Not an issue in places with good hygiene and sanitation. Problem areas include places without clean water and inadequate sanitation, common in areas hit by natural disasters. This infectious disease kills thousands each year.Smallpox- Reservoirs of this disease are kept in two labs (Russia and USA) in case of a re-emerging outbreak. Debates are ongoing about whether they should be destroyed or kept for future use.Plague- 1000-3000 cases a year in lower developed countries.HIV/Aids- 33 million are living with HIV and 20 million have died. Research and medicine has only gone so far, the world is far from a cure to the disease.Tuberculosis- 1/3 of the world’s population has the bacteria inside their bodies. 1/10 will develop the disease, 1/20 will die. A new infection develops every second.

SolutionsAs seen in the timeline, vaccines and medicine have been developed to eradicate many infectious diseases. With vaccines becoming affordable to a large population, it shows that taking these precautions are indeed helping and minimizing the number of people affected.

CasualtiesThe number of deaths depends on the level of severity. Thousands of deaths are a result of infectious diseases, sometimes millions. In some cases there is a prologned sickness before the death. Depending on the severity of the infectious disease, the patients may face non-fatal to fatal symptoms

Environmental ImpactInfectious diseases do not place a large impact on the environment. However, the environment impacts infectious diseases heavily. An example of its effect is how the climate our earth is adopting to become warmer, creating more pollution and altering aeroallergen levels, possibly causing new diseases and allowing a further influx of old diseases.

Human Impact (Long Term)-Infectious diseases have a range of effects on humans over the short and long term. Over 25 infectious diseases are now curable and preventable with medicine and vaccinations. Most infectious diseases, however, are not curable and will infect a human for their entire life. Drugs have been developed to treat (not cure) diseases that were not treatable in the past: AIDS, Herpes, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Influenza. Long term symptoms vary from diease to disease, with effects ranging from mere flu-like symptoms, to fatal reactions to the disease.

Personal ConnectionInfectious Diseases affect everyone either directly or indirectly, especially in the past where the diseasees were most prevalent with no treatment, and in our future, where the diseases may develop further. Infectious diseases are fatal in many cases, so they will always have a connection to us, whether that be directly or indirectly.

Aid Organizations-VIDO (Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Organizations) is a research institution who investigate the pathogenisis of infectious diseases and the developmentof treatments to cure infectious diseases.-Hospitals around the World care for patients who have infectious diseases or whose life is endangered due to the disease. -NCID (National Center for Infectious Diseases) is a Center in which there main goal is to prevent illnesses, deaths, and disabilities caused from infectious diseases.

Financial Impact-The Infectious Disease Market will be worth a predicted $19.1 billion in 2018 due to the demand for high quality health care services, the increasing population, and the diseases diseases advancing. The Infectious Disease Market value includes research, treatment, and everything associated with curing infectious diseases.-Vaccination and medication costs vary from Country to Country.-Vaccination and Medicine in Canada is free due to free health care. However, in the US vaccines and Medicines range in price from approximately $5 - $200.

Types of Repairs-Vaccination are offered worldwide to cure and prevent different infectious diseases.-Medicine is supplied at pharmacies across the world. However, medical care varies from country to country, causing the accessability to pharmaceutical medicine tovary as well.-Hospitals treat patients whose life is threatened by the disease or who need treatment.

Case Study

Video: Measles Outbreak

1900 - Plague in the US1926 - Tuberculosis vaccine1930’s -Earliest evidence (HIV/Aids) a disease in chimpanzees that mutated into a form that affected humans. Hunters came in contact with it while exposed to animal blood.1940’s -Smallpox declines. Great Britain is declared smallpox free. 6.3million people in New York were immunized in less than a month.1960’s -Immigrants from Haiti bring HIV/Aids to United States.1979 -World Health Organization pronounces the death of smallpox worldwide after 183 years and 313 million dollars.1990 -Tuberculosis re-emerges due to overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in prisons, shelters and large cities. 1992 -New subgroup of Chlorea emerges with a different structure making it harder to detect and control.


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