Indus Valley Civilization

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Ancient History
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Indus Valley Civilization

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION(Mohenjo-daro, Harrapa, Lothal)The Indus Valley Civilzation was an ancient civilization located in what is Pakistan and north west India today, on the fertile flood plane of the Indus river and its vicinity. While the origins of the Indus Valley covilization can be traced to much earlier periods, the specific events that led to its rise and fall remain unknown in parts because its writing remains undeciphered. Today over 1500 settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered, and they have been spread out over 680,000 sq.km. of north-west sout Asia, and area twice the size of Ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia. Indus Valley started bu Nomadic tribes called Dravidians. They crossed over the Himalayas and settled down near modern day Karachi. A very important part of the culture were cities. The were among the first cvilizations to build cities. Some of the first cities they built were Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and Lothal. Mohenjo-daro: means 'Mound of the dead' and was built around 2600 BCE. It is the most ancient and best preserved urban ruin on the Indian sub-continent. Harrapa: The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and ocupaied over a 100 hectairs at its greatest extent during the muture Harappan phase, which is considered larg forth time. Lothal:Lothal is one of the most promenent cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Descouverd in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13th february 1955 to 19th may 1960 by the archaeological survey of India (ASI). Of these three largest cities of the Indus Valley civilization, we have discussed Mohenjo-daro in this poster.

Quick FactMohenjo-daro was the most edvanced city of its time.

Indus Valley CivilizationMohenjo-daro: The City, Monuments and Sites

Mohenjo-daro Mohenjo-daro was situated by the Indus river and is currently located in Pakistan and it's population at the peak of this civilization was 30,000 to 40,000 people.The archaeological site is located on the right bank of the Indus River, 400 km from Karachi, in Pakistan's Sind Province. It was the Centre of the Indus Civilization, one of the largest in the Old World. This 5,000-year-old city is the earliest manifestation of urbanization in South Asia. Its urban planning surpasses that of many other sites of the oriental civilizations that were to follow. Of massive proportions, Mohenjo-daro comprises two sectors: Stupa Mound and the lower city.There are other important cities in the Indus Valley Civilization like Harappa and Lothal, but we chose Mohenjo-daro because it is the biggest and most important city of Indus Valley Civilzation.

The Great BathA watertight pool called the Great Bath is perched on top of a mound of dirt and held in place with a wall of baked brick. It is the closest structure Mohenjo-Daro has to a temple. it is thought to have housed the elite of the Indus Valley Civilization society and to have been a very sacred part of this ancient city.

The Stupa MoundThe Stupa Mound rises in the western sector of the ruins. it is built on a massive platform of mud brick and it is composed of the ruins of several major structures-Great Bath, Great Granary, College square and Pillered Hall- as well as a number of private homes.

The Lower City (Acropolos)The exentisive lower city is a complex of private and public houses, well, shops and commercial buildings. These buildings are laid out along streets intersecting each other at right angles in a highly orderly form of city planning that also incorporated important sustems of sanitation and drainage. The lower city was divided into two areas: the 'wealthy residential area' to the north. It had mansions of wealthy people. Whereas, the 'poor residential area' to the south had much smaller structres

Quick FactOnly one-third of the vast ruins of Mehnjodaro have been revealed by excavation since 1922

Quick FactInterestingly, the Mohenojodaro doesnot have any grand palaces, temples, or monuments and there are no obvious central seat of government or evidence of a king or queen.

The Great Hall (Granery)The Great Hall is a large building and is believed to may have been a granary; it has what appear to have been a loading platform for carts transporting grain and a ventilation system to prevent spoilage. An alternate theory is that it was a public hall; the actual function of the building has not been determined. The Great hall was approximately 27.5 meters square (90 feet square) with twenty square brick pillars arranged in four rows, only two of which are still preserved. Strips of paved floors sloped from south to north and each strip of flooring had row of bricks set on edge along both sides. The cross wall in the foreground was built later and divided the hall into smaller rooms.

Quick FactIt was awealthy city. We know this because of the many artifacts found during excavations, which are made of ivory, lapis, carnelian, and gold beads.


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