Indigenous Groups

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Indigenous Groups

The Indigenous Groups

By Melanie StoneRachels6th Period


The Paleo Indians were among the first to inhabit America.They inhabited the Southwestern United States and Mexico between 10,000 and 40,000 years. They were believed to be nomadic hunters and gatherers with no permanent settlements. For a long time they may have been following horses, caribou, or the mammoth. They are also known for inventing the spear.

The Archaic era consisted of adpating to a different stage of culture as the weather became warmer. The Archaic Indians were not nomadic as their ancestors. Instead, they relied on small game such as deer, turkey, rabbit, and fox. The Indians made seasonal moves for the different food sources available throughout the year. They are known for inventing the atlatl.



The Woodland Period is known for the appearance of burial mounds and other earthworks, and the rise of agriculture. The Indians lived in small semi-permanent villages called hamlets and grew plants such as sunflower. Although they were becoming more dependent on agriculture, they still hunted and gathered food. They are known for inventing the bow and arrow.

Mississippian people were horticulturalists. They grew their food in gardens using tools like stone axes. Corn, squash, sunflowers, and other plants were cultivated and animal foods such as deer, turkeys, and fish were also eaten. Mississippian people spent much of their lives outdoors.They were mainly farmers, often living close to rivers. They lived in small villages and hamlets. One of the most impressive things of Mississippian people are the crafted objects made of stone and pottery. The objects represent mythological objects and mythical events. The Mississippian Period was brought to an end by the European diseases introduced by early explorers and colonists. The result was the collapse of native chiefdoms. Their populations then were reduced, their structures were destroyed, and their people scattered across the region.


Horticulture helped the Indians worry less about food and gave them more time to focus on other things such as fashion, advancement in tools, games, etc.



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