Ogborn Chad: Indian Ocean Trade: Religion, Products and Disease

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Ogborn Chad: Indian Ocean Trade: Religion, Products and Disease

Between 600 and 1450, Indian kingdoms controlled Middle trading zones with many ports in India. Trades were gems, elephants, salts, cinnamon and cotton cloth.

Indian Ocean Trade:ReligionProductsDisease

600 AD

1750 AD




Works Cited

Villiers, John. "Malacca." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014.Stanley, Bruce. "Mogadishu." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014Stanley, Bruce. "Aden." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014 "Indian Ocean Trade." Blendspace. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Dec. 2014Green, John. "Int'l Commerce, Snorkeling Camels, and The Indian Ocean Trade: Crash Course World History #18." YouTube. YouTube, 24 May 2012. Web. 01 Dec. 2014."malaria." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014."Epidemics and Pandemics: Timeline." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014."cholera." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014."Field Listing :: Major Infectious Diseases." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2014."Economy under Delhi Sultanate." Economy under Delhi Sultanate. Jupiter Infomedia Ltd., 09 Sept. 2014. Web. 01 Dec. 2014.Dalby, Andrew. Dangerous Tastes: the Story of Spices, p. 50

From 1450 to 1750, India was encouraged to trade with the West, but was more preoccupied with imperial expansion.

Malaria in India due to its climate requirements which allow for reproduction in vector mosquitos, unfortunately it was primarily confined to tropical regions. However it has spread previously up to Southern Europe. Due to India’s location which is a tropical climate, vector mosquitos are allowed to basically thrive here.1347: Black death (bubonic plague) goes from Asia through to Europe due to trade. The Black Death also had gone through India due to its also extensive trade with Asia. This was a change over time because although the bubonic plague continued to spread throughout the Middle East and Asia along Indian Ocean trade routes, the spread became much less aggressive as time went on. While the black death became less and less of a problem, other diseases came into play. Overall, disease continue to spread throughout Indian Ocean traders, despite the different diseases that they were infected with. This is because people in segregated areas aren't always exposed to the same diseases as others. Although the environment can come into play, especially in terms of malaria. This specific disease infects people with carrying mosquitos. Cholera also exists in India due to untreated or contaminated drinking water, also eating shellfish in contaminated water or improper disposal of an infected persons wastes. Poverty ridden places or filthy places in India would be where Cholera exists.

The main products among Indian Ocean trade were slaves, various spices and tea, precious metals, cloth, and luxury items. Indian Ocean slave trade often included African as well as Asian slaves following the route from East Africa and the Red Sea to Arabia, India and Southeast Asia as well as vice versa. In the Islamic world, domestic slaves (slave soldiers mainly Turkics who became Muslim) came from the coastal strip of East Africa. All of this trade resulted in a lot of peaceful cultural diffusion with the merchants and into cultures themselves. For example porcelain was introduced to the Europeans, so the Chinese would paint on designs that appealed to the British in order to appeal to their taste to sell more goods. It also led to Europeans to explore more since they wanted to find trade routes in the Indian Ocean. Examples of such explorers include Vasco de Gama. The Indian Ocean regions also supplied many of their own goods, such as the spices and cloth. Spices came from Sri Lanka, Indonesia and India and later exported to Europe. During the Delhi Sultanate and through to the 18th century, indigo, spices and sugar remained key goods in the Indian Ocean regions. Despite that during the 16th through 18th centuries trade was more focused in the Atlantic Columbian Exchange than in the Indian Ocean, the products themselves never really changed.

As soon as expanding Muslim communities in East Africa collected enough wealth, they rushed to build a stone mosque. Mogadishu has two mosques bearing 13th-century dates, an indication that by that century the city's Muslim community was large and had money to donate to such construction. Mainly with the spread of Islam after 632, however, and the historical writings produced during its early expansion that Mogadishu as a specific site appears in the written record. As Muslims began to travel along the Benadir Coast, they recorded their visits or told others what they had seen. The expanding Islamic empire sought trade with the local population, producing a quick expansion and intensification in Mogadishu's trade linkages to Yemen, the Red Sea, and the Persian Gulf. It also meant that the city's role as a gateway to the south as far as Sofala in what is now Mozambique developed; for the next 600 years. By the 10th century, Omani merchants sailed as far as China and Malaysia for trade opportunities. Those merchants spread Islam to such places as India and Southeast Asia. For most of the 10th century, coastal Oman and the Persian Gulf were ruled by the Ismaili Shia sect but by the 11th century, Ismaili power had declined and the Ibadi sect of Islam gained control of the area. The Ibadis had arrived in Oman in the eighth century and united Oman while they converted the various tribes. The chiefs of various religious groups and such tribal confederations as the Ghafiris and the Hinawis usually elected the Ibadi imam. For the following centuries the Ibadis ruled the Omani interior while Persian rulers usually controlled the Omani coastline. The numerous Muslim Gujarati merchants who traded with Malacca played an important part in the conversion of Malacca to Islam, and Malacca soon became a center for the dissemination of Islam in the region—notably in the conversion of Java.

China refocused on Indian Ocean trade in the 15th century, with expeditions by Zheng He in Junks. Indian Ocean trade also included Mongols and the port of Canton.

Will Dobbie, Chad Orborn, Alex Sibert

Degree of Risk: very high Food or Waterborne Diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever Vectorborne Diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria Water Contact Disease: leptospirosis Animal Contact Disease: rabies

Changes: Trade dominance shifts from Arabian rule to Portuguese rule in the 15th century, and then later to Dutch and British rule in the 16th century.Continuities: Despite the addition of more trade routes being added to the region under European rule, trade routes that had been formed during the beginning of this time period have stayed the same throughout. Details:In the 8th century, the Islam religion was formed and the Delhi Sultanate expanded throughout the Middle East. They provided the foundation for Indian Ocean Trade. During the Middle Ages and the Crusades, trade and interaction with Europe and the Middle East was high. It also encouraged European explorers to discover new trade routes. Africa also began doing business with Portugal and the Middle East. Towards 1750, Portugal continued to control the key trading ports in the Indian Ocean. The Dutch also learn navigational techniques and routes as wel as other information to use against Portugal. They ended up taking over their Asian colonies and created the Dutch East India Company.


Arab math and science excelerated to create astronomical tools inorder to navigate ships.

Primary Source"Also somewhere near India is the island containing the Valley of Cloves. No merchants or sailors have ever been to the valley or have ever seen the kind of tree that produces cloves: its fruit, they say, is sold by genies. The sailors arrive at the island, place their items of merchandise on the shore, and return to their ship. Next morning, they find, beside each item, a quantity of cloves.One man claimed to have begun to explore the island. He saw people who were yellow in colour, beardless, dressed like women, with long hair, but they hid as he came near. After waiting a little while, the merchants came back to the shore where they had left their merchandise, but this time they found no cloves, and they realized that this had happened because of the man who had seen the islanders. After some years' absence, the merchants tried again and were able to revert to theoriginal system of trading. The cloves are said to be pleasant to the taste when they are fresh. The islanders feed on them, and they never fall ill or grow old. It is also said that they dress in the leaves of the tree that grows only in that island and is unknown to other people." Ibrahim ibn Wasif-Shahc. 1000 ADDalby, Andrew. Dangerous Tastes: the Story of Spices., p. 50.

This primary source shows how important cloves, or just spices in general, were. This man continually mentions how mysterious the cloves are said to be, implying that they are of an almost devine status.


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