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by jjdemmon
Last updated 5 years ago

Social Studies

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EconomyAs mentioned below, Agriculture is very important. Also, twenty million people work in the textile industry. Other industries make leather, steel, cars, food, electronics, and software. The economy is growing faster than that of the U.S. but many are still in poverty. More than half the people in the cities do not have a sewage system. Thirty-nine percent of the population is illiterate. The fast growth also hurts the environment. The largest resource is coal. India exports mineral fuels, jewelry, cars, electrical parts, and more. The currency is Rupee.


The capital is New Delhi. India is in South Asia. China borders to the northeast. Other neighbors are Pakistan, Nepal, and Bhutan. It is the 7th largest country by area and the 2nd by population.

The Government of India is now a democracy with three tiers: federal, state, and local. There are two houses of parliament. The president is a ceremonial position.

HISTORYPeople lived in southern India as early as 2500 B.C. The Monguls invaded from the north in the 13th century. The Mogul Empire lasted from 1536 to 1857. The Portuguese led by Vasco Da Gama landed in India in 1498. Then, the British took Bombay from the Portuguese and started the British Empire in India. After WWII, an India leader named Gandhi worked against British authority. The British added responsibility to Indian officials, and in 1935, gave Indiaa federal form of goverment and some self-rule. The British arrested Gandhi in 1942. They released him in 1944. Finally in 1947, India gained full independence but partitioned the mostly Muslim regions of the north intoseparate nation of Pakistan. India and Pakistan have tensions.

Population = 1,120,000,000.

Agriculture is very important. 75% of the population depends on agriculture. India has great contrasts in geography and climate. This allows farmers to grow a variety of foods. The plains produce wheat. They also grow beans, lentils, and chickpeas. They grow cotton, jute, sugar cane and tea for export. India is the world's leading producer of tea. Rice grows well in the humid climate. India is theworld's second leading grower of rice. Seafood and tropical fruits come from the coastline. Nuts and spices are grown in the north, including expensive saffrone. Farmers in India have dairy herds, sheep, chickens, and pigs. In the 1960s and 70s, farmers started to use some modernmethods and machines, but they face problems of environmental impactand weather.

Holidays and TraditionsThe majority (80%) of the population follows the Hindu religion. About 13% are Muslim. The country celebrates Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi's birthday. There are many Hindu festivals, including Diwali, the festival of lights, usually in October. Neighbors exchange platters of sweets. Pongal is a thanksgiving type holiday in January following the rice harvest. Other similar festivals are Sankranti and Lohri. The arrival of spring is celebrated with the holiday Holi. There are also Sikh festivals.

Tradition of Caste SystemThe caste system in India placed people in jobs based on social classes. India now has laws against discriminating against a person on this basis.

By Sean Lucas

Indian Food is known for use of herbs and spices. The food in the north is influenced by Mogul empire. The farms in the north produce nuts and spices. Lamb is also important in the north because more Muslims live there. The Muslims eat lamb, mutton or chicken, but it must be prepared in certain ways. The people in the north eat more bread instead of rice, which is used more in the south. Wheat and Basmati rice are important in the Indian diet. The Indian people use curries and spices, incuding ginger, cardamom, dried peppers and cinnamon. Chutneys (thick condiments) are used in Indian cooking. Many people who live in India are vegetarians, but lamb and chicken are common for non-vegetarians. They do not eat beef. Cows are sacred because they produce milk. Much of the food is eaten with fingers or bread. Examples of Indian foods:Curry (Kari): gravy or sauceNaan: puffy bread made in ovenParatha: flatbread Chapattis: round flatbread cooked on tavaPilau: rice dish Raita: yogurt mixed with cucumber and other vegetables.

Elephants as a symbol of good luck began with the Hindu religion in India.

Diwalithe festival of lights

The national languages are Hindu and English but there are 22 official languages spoken in India and 400 living languages.

Spices and nuts

Tradition to eat with only right hands


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