Il Ghetto Di Firenze

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by Tomihawk
Last updated 5 years ago

Discipline:
Social Studies
Subject:
Jewish History

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Il Ghetto Di Firenze

*The Great Synagogue of Florence (Tempio Maggiore) is known for its famous architecture. It was built in 1882.*"Grand Dukes Habsburg Lorraine, who ruled Tuscany after the Medici (1737- 1859), Jews of Florence started to have more citizen rights and from the XIX century they had an active rule and flourished in the cultural, economical and political life." (Sigmund, Sieman)*Build numerous schools, temples, and institutions while isolated.

The history of the Jewish ghettos in Florence can be traced back to the beginning of the 14th century in which Italians-Jews traveled from rthe Southern plains of Itlay to Florence. Many also settled in the Tuscan region. They were known to lend money to Pope Martin V in exchange for their saftey. "The Jewish community was founded in 1437"(Sieman). The Jewish residents of Florence were also protected when the Medici family came into power, mainly from members of the clergy and numerous religious fanatics. They were to be exiled in 1490 when the Medicis were removed from power, however because they were moneylenders and helped the economy, this delayed their exile long enough for the Medicis to come back to power in 1530. In 1537, a Sephratic Jew, Jacob Abranavel, influenced Cosimo di Medici to allow numerous of Sephratic Jews and Jews from Papal States to move into Florence. This caused a population increase, however, many anti-sematic laws were enacted forcing Jews to dress in a ceratian way and limited numerous rights. The Ghetto of Florence was established in 1537. Numerous Spanish and Portugeuse Jews, in the 1600s, settled into the Ghetto of Florence. There were numerous rifts, however the groups remained peaceful overall by building schools, shops, and temples. Many were merchants. The Jews of Florence were emancipated under the order of Napoleaon Boneparte in 1799. In 1848, the Jews lived under a new constitution. By 1937, 3000 Jews lived in Florence. The Nazi forces invaded and occupied Florence. When the Nazis occupied Firenze, in the fall of 1943, almost 3 thousand Jews lived in town. In November 1943, many Jews began being deported and only very few returned back home. About 1600 remained when they departed in 1946. Many Italian citizens hid and protected them. Although many were killed and deported. About 250 were deported. Many of the famous artwork was taken and/or vandalised along with the Great Synagogue.

In 1903, the community of Florence numbered about 3,000 souls" (Sieman). It is governed by a council known as "consiglio", which is composed of sixteen members. These members elect a committee of only five from among themselves. There are two synagogues present. The first is the large new Sephardic synagogue, usually commented as the "most beautiful synagogue of Europe," built and completed in 1882. In August of 1944, German troops worked with Italian Fascists to destroy the synagogue. The Italian resistance managed to defuse most of the explosives and a minor amount of damage was done. The synagogue had been restored after the war.The second is a small synagogue called "Italian ritual" in the Via dell' Oche. The both are Orthodox, as well as the two Jewish cemeteries. An old one dating from the eighteenth century, and a new one dating from about 1875.

-^www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org- www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org- Stefanie, B. Siegmund. The Medici State and The Ghetto of Florence. 2006.

il Ghetto di Firenze

Historical Background

Accomplishments

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Present Florence

The Jewish Ghetto thrived and existed as a physical place more than a hundred years ago. This was a time before culture evolved and new buildings were introduced in the late nineteenth century. The ghetto continues to inspire as an historical fact, and perhaps even as a state of mind for immense imagination.

The Florence Cathedral complex is located in Piazza del Duomo. It includes the Baptistery and Giotto's Campanile. The three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. It's covering the historic centre of Florence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting the region of Tuscany.

Continuous Inspiration

A Florence Ghetto,

Piazza del Duomo


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