History of Atomic Theory

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History of Atomic Theory

oYear- 1896oPlum Pudding ModeloDid the Cathode Ray Tube Experiment--Observed that the green stream passed from cathode(-) to anode(+). A paddle wheel in the tube was turned by the stream, concluding that the stream was made of particles with mass. A magnet caused the stream to bend toward the positive side, concluding that the particles have a negative charge. The gas in the tube made no difference, concluding that this particle is fundamental to all elements. Discovered particles with negative charges, electrons. This proved that an atom could be broken down and was not indestructible

oYear- 1909oNuclear Model--An atom is mostly empty space. A small, positive nucleus contains all the massoRutherford did the Alpha Scattering/Gold Foil Experiment: A beam of alpha particles was shot at a thin sheet of gold foil to see if and how the particles were deflected.Results: 99.99% of the alpha particles passed straight through the foil. This concludes that the atom is mostly empty space. Very few, 1/8000, was deflected by something. This concluded that almost all the mass and positive charge of an atom is in the center of the atom, the nucleus.

History of Atomic Theory

Year-1803oBilliard Ball ModeloDalton’s Atomic Theory-- All matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed. Atoms of the same element are identical and atoms of different elements are different. Compounds are formed from elements in specific ratiosoDalton was the first person to consolidate the ideas of other scientistsoHe combined the ideas of Democritus, Lavoisier, and Proust

Dalton- Britain

Thomson- Britain

Rutherford- New Zealand

oYear- 1911oEnergy Level/Planetary ModelElectrons orbit the nucleus in various energy levels at certain distances from the nucleus.oDiscovered that the electrons in an atom exist in specific energy levels around the nucleus.oThe electrons far from the nucleus are in a high energy level and have a lot of energy.oThe electrons close to the nucleus are in a low energy level and have less energy.

Bohr- Denmark



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