Hildegard Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations

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Hildegard Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations

Hildegard Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations

Peplau defines nursing as a therapeutic relationship between nurse and patient. Peplau believed that "through the devise of the thereapeutic nurse-patient relationship, the nurse could be most beneficial to human beings." (Fawcet, 2010, p. 529)There are 3 phases of the nurse-patient relationship process as defined by Peplau.1. The orientation phase2. The working phase3. The termination phase.As nurses, we all want to leave our patients better than we found them and as a nurse, it is important for me to know that I was an integral part of improving a patient's life. But making a person better is not just the interventions that we carry out in caring for our patients that make them better, it is the relationship and trust that a nurse and patient and patient's family have. "According to Peplau (1952), her process of communication was a means to promote favorable changes in patient behaviors." (Senn, 2013)

- "In any patient setting, trust occurs when the patient is confident in the nurse's conveyance of integrity and reliability. (Senn, 2013)" - I believe that Peplau's work with the Theory of Interpersonal Relations can be applied to virtually any area of nursing with the exception of the mentally ill and infants and young children in which the nurse-patient relationship would shift to the parents or family. This theory is the foundation of patient care and is at work even without the nurse or the patient realizing that there is theory behind it. But I believe that if the nurse has an understanding of the phases and nurse / patient roles that make up this theory, they will be more situationally aware and will communicate more effectively, thus creating a greater level of trust and respect between nurse and patient.Peplau's work is especially important for me as a perioperative nurse who has a very short period of time to develop this relationship. There is great importance that this nurse-patient relationship is effectively established in that short period of time because I as the nurse, will be that patient's advocate while they are unable to advocate for themselves. It is especially important at this phase of care that patient and also family can have that level of trust with me.

6 Helping Roles of the Nurse Providing Care1. Stranger - Nurse and patient meet for the first time. The goal for the nurse is to establish and build trust with the patient. Success in this role is the foundation for development of a therapeutic relationship and necessary for establishment of other roles. (Courey, Draucker, Martstolf, Strickland, 2008)2. Resource Person - Using expert professional knowledge and critical thinking skills, the nurse provides factual health information and evaluates plan of care. Nurse must provide information in response to patient questions in a sensitive and therapeutic manner.3. Teacher - The nurse provides education to patient in a formal way such as providing detailed instructions to a patient or informally by self modeling patterns of health and wellness. (Lego, 1998)4. Leader - Nurse collaborates with patient to work towards treatment goals. Nurse encourages patient to actively participate in their own health maintence by providing guidance, direction and support. 5. Surrogate - In this role, the nurse takes the place of close family relative or friend that the patient identifies with.6. Conselor - In this role, the nurse seeks to have the patient explore their current situation or problem and their feelings surrounding it. The nurse must be aware that this may cause anxiety for the patient and must be an active listener, provide therapeutic communication and provide guidance and support. (Gastmans, 1998)There is a 7th role that Peplau did not define in her original theory, The Technical role, this role defines the technical skills that nurses employ to provide care to patients on a daily basis. Technical skills include: physical assessment, use of IV pumps, blood pressure cuffs and ventilators.

Peplau's Nurse-Patient Relationship Process1. Initial phase - Orientation Phase - It is here that a trusting relationship is formed. In this phase, the nurse collects data and evaluates patient's needs, desires, potential to reach personal and nursing goals.2. Phase Two - Working Phase - This is where most of the "work" of the relationship is done. In this phase, the nurse uses her professional knowledge and education to solve patient's health problems. In this phase, the patient recognizes the nurse as helping, empathetic and providing unconditional care. Here, the power shifts from the nurse to the patient as they become more independent with their own care and work towards discharge.3. Phase Three - Termination Phase - In this phase, the nurse and patient separate as the nurse finalizes discharge plan and helps patient transition to next phase of ideally independence. Termination of the nurse-patient relationship helps the patient to become more independent in leading a productive healthier life. (Fawcett, 2010)


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    611d4bf55838b611d4bf5745bf's avatar

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