Harriet Tubman

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Harriet Tubman

"When I found I had crossed that line, I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person. There was such a glory over everything; the sun came out like gold through the trees, and over the trees, and over the fields, and I felt like I was in heaven."- Harriet Tubman

HARRIET TUBMAN - Civil Rights - - Activist -

Early Life Harriet Tubman, orgianally named Araminta Harriet Ross, was born to enslaved parents in the state of Maryland. Being a child of nine, Tubman was used to facing hardship and loss, seeing as only two of her siblings remained after she grew up. Tubman was also used to punishment, such as being lashed at at least five times before breakfast and suffering from a traumatic head injury as an adult. As a result of refusing to help a slave secure a runaway, the slave smacked her with a two pound weight in the head. Following this event she had many seizures, headaches, and narcoleptic episodes for the rest of her life.The line between freedom and slavery was blurry for the Tubman's. Harriet Tubmans father, for example, was freed from slavery but continued to work for his previous owners; meanwhile his other family member's owners refused to free them, regardless of the father's arguments. As time went on, it became more uncommon for families to be half free, half enslaved, and Tubman's family was like this. No matter how hard Tubman's family tried, they had no chance negotiating slave owner's decisions to keep Tubman's family as slaves. In 1894, Tubman married a free black man, John Tubman, but little is known about their marriage.

SOURCES www.biography.com/people/Harriet-Tubman-9511430 www.history.com/topics/black-history/Harriet-tubman

Later LifeIn 1859, Harriet Tubman settled and bought a piece of land on the edge of Auburn, New York, a safe haven and welcoming residence for her family and friends. Tubman spent her later years with her husband and war veteran Nelson Davis and adopted daughter Gertie, tending to her residents and continuing to follow the war.Although Tubman was very famous and admired, she was never financially secure. Many of her family members and friends raised funds for her and tried their best to help out. Then an admirer Sarah Bradford wrote a biography about Tubman, giving all of the proceeds to the Tubman family. Despite her financial issues, Tubman continued to give freely. She donated a piece of her land to a Church in Auburn, NY, in which the Harriet Tubman Home For The Aged was opened on the site in 1908. As Tubman aged, her previous head injuries came into effect and caused disturbance, forcing her to have surgery to relieve the "buzzing" she experienced. Eventually she retired to the Harriet Tubman Home For the Aged, where she died of pneumonia in 1913. Years after her death, Harriet Tubman became a well admired American icon. According to a end of 29th century survey, Tubman was named as one of the most famous Americans, on,y behind Paul Revere and Betsy Ross. Over the years she has continued to inspire all generations of Americans struggling for rights.After Tubman's death, she was buried at Forthill Cemetery in Auburn with military honors, and the city commemorated her with a plaque in the courthouse. She was also celebrated with schools in her name, homes for the aged, museums, and monuments in her honor.

Escape From Slavery & AbolitionismEven though Harriet Tubman feared her family being separated, she escaped slavery in 1849 and fleed to Philidelphia. At her first time escaping, she left with her two brothers on September 17th, 1849. Unfortunately, after their escape was discovered there was a $300 reward put out for whoever returned them. The two brothers had second thoughts after this news was released and they headed back to the plantation. Harriet Tubman couldn't go back; she continued on through the Underground Railroad to Pennsylvania, a free state. Despite how relieved Tubman was, instead of continuing on her path to freedom she went back to bring her family, as well as other slaves, to freedom and safety. Over time, Harriet Tubman continued to return to the plantation and rescue eventually 60+ slaves. Due to her persevering leadership, she was often called 'Moses' or 'General Tubman'. Even though Harriet Tubman returned many times, her husband was never one of the people heading to freedom on the Underground Railroad; for he had stayed in Maryland with his new wife.In 1850 the dynamics of escaping slavery changed when the Fugitive Slave Law was passed. This law stated that escaped slaves could be captured in the north and return to slavery. Because of this, Tubman re routed the Underground Railroad to Canada, where slavery was prohibited categorically. In 1851, she lead 11 fugitives North, and there was evidence that they stopped at Frederick Douglas', a former slave and abolishonist, house. Some years later she met another abolitionist, John Brown, in which she shared goals to demolish slavery with.During the civil war Harriet Tubman remained active working as a nurse and cork in the Union. Soon she became a scout and spy, and she was the first women to lead an armed expedition in the war. On this expedition she lead the Combahee River Raid, which freed more than 700 slaves in South Carolina.


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