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HALOGENS(Group 17-nonmetals)

Helpful and Harmful effects of HalogensHelpful- Chlorine is used to treat arthritis, diabetes and other allergies, Bromine is used to kill bacteria in water, Astatine is used in treatments in cancer.Fluorine is added to the water supply to reduce tooth decay. Chlorine is used to purify drinking water and swimming pool water. Iodine has been very useful in treating acne, conjunctivitis, cretinismHarmful- Can produce very dangerous gases, Fluorine is one of the most dangerous chemicals known. Fluorine attacks your skin and throat and causes serious burns. Chlorine can cause difficulty in breathing, eye and skin irritation, Airway irritation. harmful to organisms living in water and soil. Iodine can increase the risk of cancer. Iodine can cause very serious environmental effects.

5 ELEMENTS:-Chlorine (Cl)-Iodine (I)-Bromine (Br)-Fluorine (F)-Astatine (At)- Halogens are particularly reactive with the alkali and alkaline metals.- "The term halogens loosely implies to 'salt former.'-"Compounds that contain them are commonly referred to as 'salts.'

Properties of HalogensChemical:- Highly reactive and electronegative- Seven electrons in the outermost shell.- Diatomic- High Electron AffinityPhysical: - Brittle - Poor conductors of heat and electricity- Low melting and boiling points- Increase in density

7 Valence Electrons

Chlorine:- First halogen that was discovered in 1774- Primarily a gas- Appears to be a light green gas at room temperature- "Medicinal products containing chloride are used to treat infections, allergies, and diabetes."- Another use of chloride is to sterilize hospital machinery and to limit growth infection.

Iodine:- Second halogen discovered- Found in solid forms- At room temperature, it is a violet solid color.- "Iodine has only one stable isotope."- "Iodine is important in the proper functioning of the thyroid gland of our body."- "Iodine is also used as an antiseptic."

Bromine:- Third halogen discovered in 1826- "...bromine is one of the two elements that are present in liquid state at room temperature." (other one being mercury)- "Bromine is used in flame retardants because of its fire resistant properties.- "Bromine is involved in gasoline production as well."Other uses include:- Production in photgraphy films- Content in fire extinguishers- Drugs treating pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease

Fluorine:- Fourth halogen discovered- Primarily a gas- Most reactive element on the Periodic Table- Fluorine gas is a pale yellow color at room temeprature.- "Fluorine has the highest electronegativity of all elements."- "It is the most abundant halogen found in the Earth's crust."Many uses:- Manufacture of aluminum- Manufacture of toothpaste- Fluoridating water- Welding- Soldering- Catalyst

Astatine:- Last halogen discovered in 1940- Least reactive element- Radioactive element- "It is the only halogen that is a not diatomic molecule and it appears as a black, metallic solid at room temperature."- "Since Astatine is radioactive and rare, there are no proven uses for this element."-But "Astatine has been used in mice to aid the study of cancer."


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