greek gods

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greek gods

The parthenon: Work began on the Parthenon in 447 BC to replace an existing temple which was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC and had been very expensive to build. The work began under the orders of Pericles to show the wealth of Athenian power. The name of the building most likely came from a cult statue of Athena Parthenos in the eastern room of the building. This magnificent structure was built of ivory and gold and was sculptured by the sculptor Phidias. As with most buildings on the Acropolis it was dedicated to Athena to thank the goddess for their success. The Parthenon was finally finished in 432 BC and was to show the world the dominance and power of Athens. Not only was the Parthenon a magnificent structure to look at, but it also showed Athenian dominance over the rest of Greek land and that Athens was the best city in Greece. The Parthenon is a clear example of Doric design with Ionic architectural features. This design was so great it has been copied centuries later, even the Romans incorporated it into the design of their buildings, and a good example of this can be seen at the Roman library at Ephesus. Measured at the top step, the dimensions of the base of the Parthenon are 69.5 meters by 30.9 meters (228.0 x 101.4 ft). There was a double pi-shaped colonnade which held the statue Athena Parthenos. The statue showed Athena dressed in full armour holding Nike (goddess of Victory) to the Athenians in her right hand. The West Pediment portrayed the dispute between Athena and Poseidon over control of Athens in front of heroes, the gods and the mythical Kings of Attica. The festival, Panathinaia, the greatest Athenian festival ever, held a procession from the Dipylon Gate in the Koromikos to the Acropolis. The procession was held yearly and had a special procession every fourth year. Athenians and foreigners came together at the festival, with all paying tribute and offering sacrifices to Athena. The Parthenon had been kept in relatively good condition right up until the 19th century. During this time it had seen a number of changes. For nearly a thousand years the Parthenon was still used as a temple to Athena until as late as the 4th Century AD. By this time Athens had been turned into a province of the Roman Empire and had lost most of its former glory. Unfortunately sometime in the 5th Century the Parthenon was raided by a Roman Emperor and the statue of the cult image of Athena was stolen and taken to Constantinople where it was later destroyed during the crusades. After the looting by the Roman Emperors the building itself was still intact and was turned into a church in the 5th Century AD by the Christians. Turning the temple into a church meant that the building was still kept in good condition apart from a bit a restructuring inside; for example a few of the columns were removed as well as some of the marble statues. It also meant that statues and other designs showing more than one god were either removed or destroyed. The Ottomans converted the Parthenon from a church to a Muslim place to worship (mosque). Again the Parthenon was well maintained and looked after until the late 17th Century. In 1687 the Venetians, under Francesco Morosini, attacked the Ottomans in Athens. The Acropolis was used as a gunpowder store and when the Parthenon took a direct hit from a mortar fired by the Venetians from the Hill of Philopappus, the gunpowder exploded and destroyed a large part of the building. Morosini and his men soon plundered the building, looting what they could find and destroying the rest, leaving the partial ruins that can be seen today. As most of the sculptures and depictions were either looted or destroyed we only know what they looked like from drawings by Jacques Carrey, a Flemish artist in 1674. What was left was further damaged in 1801 when many of the depictions and remaining antiques were forcibly removed by the British Ambassador at Constantinople, the Earl of Elgin, under orders to make casts and drawings. It was only in 1975 that a hard effort was made by the Greek government, with help from Europe, to try and restore the damage caused by the explosion as well as the modern day damage caused by pollution. Unfortunately the Parthenon will never be restored to its former glory. Greek history: The history of Greece can be traced back to Stone Age hunters. Later came early farmers. This was followed by a period of wars and invasions, known as the Dark Ages. In about 1100 BC, people called the Dorians invaded from the north and spread down the west coast. In the period from 500-336 BC Greece was divided into small city states, each of which consisted of a city and its surrounding countryside. There were only a few historians in the time of Ancient Greece. Three major ancient historians, were able to record their time of Ancient Greek history, that include Herodotus, known as the 'Father of History' who travelled to many ancient historic sites at the time. Perseus: Perseus, the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits helped establish the hegemony of Zeus and the Twelve Olympians in the mainland of Greece. Perseus was the hero who killed Medusa.Jason: Jason is a hero of Greek mythology who led the Argonauts in the search of the Golden Fleece. His father was Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcus.

The Ancient Greeks

I got all this info from the website



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