Geography of Mesopotamia

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Geography of Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a Greek word meaning between the rivers. The rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates which flow through modern Iraq. The Euphrates also flows through much of Syria. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after his death, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthians. Mesopotamia became a battleground between the Romans and Parthians, with parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeral Roman control. In AD 226, it fell to the Sassanid Persians and remained under Persian rule until the 7th-century Arab Islamic conquest of the Sassanid Empire. A number of primarily neo Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1st century BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene, Osroene, and Hatra.


The pre-history of the Ancient Near East begins in the Lower Paleolithic period, but writing began with a pictographic script in the Uruk IV period ca. 4th millennium BC, and the documented record of actual historical events and the ancient history of lower Mesopotamia commence in the mid-third millennium BC with cuneiform records of early dynastic kings, and ends with either the arrival of the Achaemenid Empire in the late 6th century BC, or with the Arab Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia and the establishment of the Caliphate in the late 7th century AD, from which point the region came to be known as Iraq. During this period Mesopotamia housed some of the world's most ancient highly developed and socially complex states. The region was one of the four riverine civilizations where writing was invented, along with the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus Valley in the Indian subcontinent, and Yellow River valley in China. Mesopotamia housed historically important cities such as Uruk, Nippur, Nineveh, Assur and Babylon, as well as major territorial states such as the city of Eridu, the Akkadian kingdom, the Third Dynasty of Ur, and the various Assyrian empires. Some of the important historical Mesopotamian leaders were Ur-Nammu (king of Ur), Sargon (who established the Akkadian Empire, Hammurabi who established the Old Babylonian state, Ashur-uballit II and Tiglath-Pileser I who established the Assyrian Empires.

Mesopotamia is made up of different regions, each with its own geography. The geography of each area and the natural resources found there affected the ways that people lived.Northern Mesopotamia is made up of hills and plains. The land is quite fertile due to seasonal rains, and the rivers and streams flowing from the mountains.Early settlers farmed the land and used timber, metals and stone from the mountains nearby.Southern Mesopotamia is made up of marshy areas and wide, flat, barren plains. Cities developed along the rivers which flow through the region. Early settlers had to irrigate the land along the banks of the rivers in order for their crops to grow. Since they did not have many natural resources, contact with neighbouring lands was important.


This is my Glog about Mesopotamia.


Geography: Mesopotamia





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