Genetics Glogster

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by QuinnF51
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Genetics Glogster

What is the Myelin Project?

Genetics Glogster

What are Sex-linked Traits and how are they Inherited?

Sex-Linked traits are characteristics that come from the genes on the sex chromosomes. They can be carried on either the X or Y chromosome, but usually they are carried on the X chromosome. Sex-Linked traits that are on the Y chromosome will only be passed on to the sons, 100% because females do not have a Y, and males only get that one Y from their father. Traits that are carried on the X chromosome can be passed on to sons and daughters depending on whose X chromosome it is, and the probability of the offspring getting that X. Genes carry the information for the characteristics that you have. Some are from your biological mother and some are from your biological father.

A nerve impulse is how messages in the nerve are transmitted. There is a certain pathway that a nerve travels. First, it starts at the Axons of one neuron cell. It goes through the synapses, and travels to the dendrites of another neuron cell. The dendrites carry the nerve impulse to the actual neuron cell which then carries it to the axons of that cell. This repeats itself through the entire body, helping the brain and the body communicate with each other. There is a chemical called a neurotransmitter that aids the impulse over the synapses. When there is a positive charge outside the neuron cell, and a negative charge on the inside of the cell, they send electoral impulses through the nerves (from axon through synapses, travels through the dendrites, and to the cell bodies.) Action Potential is when a neuron cell goes from being at rest (having an equal number of positive ions on the outside, and negative ions on the inside) to being in motion (having the ions mix.) There are channels that allow the positive ions to pass through. At a certain point, this sends the jolt that you feel when you, for example, bump into a table. Soon, it will go back into a resting state, once the inside and outside of the cell even out in positive and negative ions.

Sex-Linked traits are inherited through families, and like I stated earlier, they are inherited through the X and Y chromosomes. There are two types of Sex-Linked inheritance. There is Dominant Inheritance, and Recessive Inheritance.

When an odd gene is able to cause disease from one parent, yet the coordinating gene from the other parent is completely fine, the peculiar gene will be the one that dominates the recessive gene. This is called Dominant Inheritance.

When the coordinating genes both contain the odd gene to produce the disease, it is called recessive inheritance. This is the tricky part though. If only one parent contains the recessive odd gene, and its pair is normal, the offspring will be a carrier (only the X chromosome though). This is also an example of recessive inheritance.

The Myelin Project is a non-profit organization. It was founded in 1989 by Augusto and Michaela Odone who had a son named Lorenzo. He had X-ALD (Adrenoleukodystrophy) The Nyelin Project has six parts to their mission. The first part is to support myelin research by providing money to scientists, so they can do experiments. They second part is to get demyelinating diseases a lot of recognition. They want more people to give funds to help find cures for these diseases. The third part is to support the idea of newborn screening and rare disease legislation. They want more people to realize these precautions or the help that these can give. The fourth is to have information for the patients and their families when they need it. The fifth is they want to encourage these meetings where the scientists all over the world collaborate on all of the research that they have done over the years. Finnally, the sixth is to find more ways to help prevent these demyelinating diseases and/or find a way to completely stop these diseases from happening.

What is the Normal Pathway of Nerve Impusle Transmission?

ALD is an inherited recessive genetic disorder that is on the X chromosome. (sex-linked, or X-linked) ALD’s scientific name is Adrenoleukodystrophy. ALD destroys your myelin which is the protective coating around your nerves. Because it is X-linked, only boys can get this disease with showing complete symptoms because they only have one X chromosome. A girl can only be a carrier and experience no symptoms.(Rarely, they will experience very mild symptoms.) ALD has a wide range of symptoms. Boys are usually diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 10. This disease makes the body unable to produce a certain carrier protein that acts like the transportation for taking fat molecules to where they are broken down. In result of this, these fat molecules will increase in size. They will hurt the cells. The nerve cells and spine especially. Like I stated earlier, ALD strips the Myelin around the nerve. This can cause in the early stages of ALD,violence, problems with stability, and anxiety. In the late stages of ALD, sometimes it leaves the patient with no communication skills, inability to walk, and inability to swallow. The stripping of the myelin can also cause brain damage because there is no protection.

There is one kid named Lorenzo Odone who had ALD. They made a movie about him called Lorenzos Oil. When he was around the age of five, he started experiencing violence, stability problems, and lack of communication. After doing many tests, MRI’s, X-Rays, CT-Scans, and blood tests, they concluded that he had ALD. He inherited from his mother because she was a carrier. Later on in his life, he lost the ability to completely move, swallow, or speak. His father and mother did everything that they could to find a cure. After several years, they came up with an oil called Erucic, Lorenzos Oil, that brought down the build up of the fatty molecules.(Lorenzos Oil Worksheet)

What is the ALD disorder that affected Lorenzo, and how did it affect his body?

By: Quinn Fabish



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