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Genetic Engineering

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Last updated 3 years ago

Discipline:
Science
Subject:
Biology
Grade:
9

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Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

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Plate Pictures

The purpose of the pBLU transformation lab was to show how a plasmid can be inserted into a cell. Our group observed and recorded the transformation and growth of the modified bacteria. The E. Coli colonies were transformed through the insertion of a plasmid. The phenotype of the cells was changed when the plasmid was implanted into the E. Coli. The bacteria then formed clones of themselves when cultured.

The AquAdvantage Salmon is the name of the genetically engineered salmon created by AquaBounty Technologies. This salmon has had two new genes introduced into it’s body. The gene that allows the salmon to grow faster at a younger age was taken from the Chinook Salmon, and the gene that permits the AquAdvantage Salmon to grow continually was removed from the eelpout. This allows these fish to have a growth ratio of two to one, compared to regular, unmodified Atlantic Salmon. These genetically modified salmon tend to have more trouble swimming than their unmodified counterparts. The FDA is working to make this product available for the general public to consume, which would make the AquAdvantage salmon the first genetically modified animal to be approved for consumption.I believe that, if proven safe for consumption by the FDA, the AquAdvantage Salmon could make a great contribution to the food supplies in the world. Some people may be skeptical of eating a genetically modified animal, but humans eat genetically modified fruits and vegetable often. Research in genetic engineering could open doors when it comes to fighting off diseases. This ability to modify a gene in an animal, or a human, could be vital to our survival in later years. Some people may believe that scientists are tampering with mother nature, but if it allows starving people to eat, then I believe that genetic engineering is not only ethical, but vital to the lives of many.

Contrasting ideas

Results for LB-:Expected Outcome- growth but no colorActual Results- growth but no colorExplanation- This batch of E. Coli was unmodified but had no hampering effects on the growthResults for LB+:Expected Outcome- growth but no colorActual Results- a film over the agar without colorExplanation- The E. Coli grew in the presence of Luria Broth, it look like a film was over the top of the agarResults for LB/Amp-:Expected Outcome- No growth with no colorActual Results- No growth with no colorExplanation- The ampicillin limits growth by killing off the bacteriaResults for LB/Amp+:Expected Outcome- Growth in coloniesActual Results- Growth in coloniesExplanation- The modified E. Coli was able to grow with the ampicillin present due to the resistance gene that was insertedResults for LB/Amp/X+:Expected Outcome- Blue growth in linesActual Results- Blue growth in linesExplanation- With the Xgal present, the Betagalactosidase gene was able to make the E. Coli grow blue.

Gene GunOne of the techniques used to insert genes into eukaryotic cells is the gene gun. Designed in 1987 by John Sanford, the gene gun makes inserting a specific gene into a eukaryotic cell easier. It works by causing the DNA to become “sticky” under certain situations. These “sticky” ends attach to inanimate particles, usually a metal such as tungsten or gold. The cell has now taken up the new DNA. This “biolistic” process is used mainly on plants and has helped farmers grow healthier crops.This is beneficial to society because it allows scientists to be able to help farmers make their crops more efficient and sustainable to grow. This technique helps to create pest-resistant, less temperature sensitive plants that are also healthier, bigger, and tastier. For example, a scientist can use the gene gun to give life to a cell with a gene that allows that plant to be resistant to a famine present in the area or a pest that is overrunning the farming community within the proximity. The gene gun is used to insert genes into bacteria, yeast, and plant cells. There has also been experimentation with a hepatitis B vaccine that has been tested on mice and humans.http://www.bio.davidson.edu/Courses/Molbio/MolStudents/spring2003/McDonald/Gene_gun.html

Plate Results

The Betagalactosidase gene was inserted into the plasmid through the use of a restriction enzyme that cuts the plasmid, allowing the gene to be inserted into it, when the gene has been cut with the same restriction enzyme. This allows the DNA ligase to bond the matching sticky ends together to form a new plasmid.

Plasmid Preparation

Purpose of the lab

Future Impact

Genetic Engineering will have a great impact on society in many ways such as medical and agricultural. In the future, genetic engineering may help to cure hereditary diseases and help to prevent the passage of them from generation to generation. They may also be able to cure diseases such as herpes, hepatitis, and cancer through the use of genetic engineering.Genetically modifying plants and animals leads to healthier, faster growing organisms. For example, the AquAdvantage salmon has had genes inserted into it’s DNA in order for it to be able to grow faster and continuously. This may be that future for all species of farm raised animals. Plants have already been modified to fend off diseases, pests, and temperature, along with becoming tastier in the process. The possibilities of genetic modification is endless with plants, and we will continue to become more advanced at genetic engineering.

How I Feel about Genetic Engineering...

I think that genetic engineering will be helpful to the future of the human race by allowing us to modify our own cells to counteract disease and other potentially harmful things that may come in the future. I believe that genetic engineering has downsides but the positive effects outweigh the negative consequences. Genetic engineering has come a long way, and I believe that it will only progress further and become more advanced.


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