Genetic Disorder

by SahithiTalasila
Last updated 6 years ago

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Genetic Disorder

Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of metabolism where a type of fat (lipid) called glucocerebroside cannot be adequately degraded. Normally, the body makes an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase that breaks down and recycles glucocerebroside - a normal part of the cell membrane. People who have Gaucher disease do not make enough glucocerbrosidase. This causes the specific lipid to build up in the liver, spleen, bone marrow and nervous system interfering with normal functioning. There are three recognized Types of Gaucher disease and each has a wide range of symptoms. Type 1 is the most common, does not affect the nervous system and may appear early in life or adulthood. Many people with Type 1 Gaucher disease have findings that are so mild that they never have any problems from the disorder. Type 2 and 3 do affect the nervous system. Type 2 causes serious medical problems beginning in infancy, while Type 3 progresses more slowly than Type 2.There are also other more unusual forms that are hard to categorize within the three Types. Gaucher disease is caused by changes (mutations) in a single gene called GBA. Mutations in the GBA gene cause very low levels of glucocerebrosidase. A person who has Gaucher disease inherits a mutated copy of the GBA gene from each of his/her parents. Symptoms of Gaucher disease vary greatly among those who have the disorder. The symptoms of Type 1 Gaucher disease include bone disease, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, and lung disease. The symptoms in Type 2 and Type 3 Gaucher disease include those of Type 1 and other problems involving the nervous system such as eye problems, seizures and brain damage. In Type 2 Gaucher disease, severe medical problems begin in infancy. These individuals usually do not live beyond age two. There are also some patients with Type 2 Gaucher disease that die in the newborn period, often with severe skin problems or excessive fluid accumulation (hydrops). Individuals with Type 3 Gaucher disease may have symptoms before they are two years old, but often have a more slowly progressive disease process and the extent of brain involvement is quite variable. They usually have slowing of their horizontal eye movements. Recently it has been observed that both patients with Gaucher disease and Gaucher carriers have an increased risk of developing Parkinson disease and related disorders. Enzyme replacement therapy is now available as an effective treatment for individuals who have symptoms from Gaucher disease. The treatment involves giving a modified form of the enzyme, glucocerbrosidase, by intravenous infusion every two weeks. Enzyme replacement therapy helps to stop progression and often reverse many of the symptoms of Gaucher disease, but does not affect the nervous system involvement. Other treatments that have been required include: removal of the spleen (splenectomy), blood transfusions, pain medications, and joint replacement surgery.

Blood of a patient with Gaucher's Disease

Affects Of Gaucher's Disease

Gaucher's Disease Karyotype

Affects of Gaucher's Disease

Gaucher's Disease



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