[2015] Catalina Perez (AP Bio 2B): Genetic Cloning

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[2015] Catalina Perez (AP Bio 2B): Genetic Cloning

Genetic Cloning

Introduction

Method

What did we do?

Opinion

What I think will happen?

As a group, we believe that genetic cloning should be in effect becase it can lead to many scientific advancements. For example, genetic cloning can lead to stem cell research such as embryonic stem cells, which may help with in vitro fertilization. Genetic cloning can also allow for a species to come out of endagerment without having to go through the stress of natural reproduction.

Genetic cloning is when two organisms are made to have identical copies of DNA. This makes the two organisms look the exact same because every bit of their DNA is the same. Genetic cloning allows scientists to be able to examine different proteins and their structures which, on a more wider-scale will help scientists be able to research deeper into the fields of diseases. Knowing more about these proteins can help develop cures and preventitives to diseases that kill so many people every day.

Research Conclusions: In the experiment regarding animal cells, the results in carrot plant root cells showed that the cells would grow into normal adult plants by themselves. This showed that differentiation does not involve irreversible changes in the DNA, meaning that any cell has the potential to use its DNA to give rise to other specialized cell types. In experiments regarding animal cells, the conclusions were that something in the nucleus of the cell changes as the animal cells differentiate meaning that the nucleus beccomes more restricted as the embryonic process progresses.Results of the Data: The results of the experiments show that cloning animal cells is more difficult that cells of organisms that are not heterotrophic and require constant intake of substanance. For this reason, scientists have concluded that it is difficult to clone a specimen fully without complications because many of the specific codings for things such as acelytation of histones may be lost or rearanged.Implications: Many moral issues are evident throughout the cloning process. Many individuals disagree with cloning humans because of the fact that it is changing nature in a way. In the perspective of a scientist, the implications of the research regarding the animal cells shows that there is still much work to be done in order to find a way to successfully clone every amino acid and specific code in order to create a healthy organism.

There are two types of genetic cloning that take pace. The first, Artificial Embryo Twinning is very similar to the process of making identical twins. This is done by splitting an embryo very early in growth. This takes place inside petri dishes, which then creates two identical individual cells. Then they are placed in a surrogate mother and becase they are from the same fertilized egg, they grow and develop to be genetically identical. The second is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. To do this, a somatic cell is isolated and the nucleus is removed along with the entire DNA from an egg cell. The nucleus is then moved to the egg cell. This now behaved like a newly fertilized egg and placed into a surrogate mother to develop and grow. When done growing, the specimen will be an exact copy of the original specimen.

Results

What happened ' Why?

Pros and Cons

Pros:1. Cloning cells and animals saves time for researchers of human diseases who experiment with animal models. Selective breeding takes many years to provide the scientists with a large population so it cut short the time spent on the actual experiments. Cloning provides a possibility of breeding individuals with same exact genome in a short period of time, thus saving time for scientists to do the actual research on diseases.2. Cloning stem cells can be used to grow and repair damaged tissues, and also to maintain body tissues. 3. Genetic cloning technology enables researchers to bring back extinct species and maintain population of endangered species. Cons:1. Through cloning, especially in human beings, there is a loss of individuality and uniqueness of the clone. This could led to society devalue the existence of them.2. Because clones have the same genes as the original individual, gradual increase in cloning decreases the genetic variation of the population. 3. Identical genetic makeup leads to a higher chance of the population of clones to be affected by diseases

Citations"Cloning." Cloning. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Mar. 2015."How?" Areas of Research. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2015.Reece, Jane B., Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven Alexander Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Rob Jackson, and Neil A. Campbell. Campbell Biology. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.Genetic Science Learning Center (2014, June 22) Why Clone?. Learn.Genetics. Retrieved March 16, 2015, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whyclone/ "Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning." BBC News. BBC, 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2015."CGS : Reproductive Cloning Arguments Pro and Con." CGS : Reproductive Cloning Arguments Pro and Con. Center For Genetics and Society, 15 May 2006. Web. 12 Mar. 2015.Image:Dolly [Digital image]. (n.d.). Retrieved March 15, 2015, from https://rakabe.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/dolly.jpg

Authors: Billy Goldstein, Catalina Perez, Saylor Nolan, Zinnia Lin


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